Animal Nutrition Laarman (1st half) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Animal Nutrition Laarman (1st half) Deck (29)
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1

what is animal nutrition

the science of how animals assimilate feeds

how the nutrients in feed are utilized for growth, tissue repair and replacement
production of animal products

2

What is a nutrient

any chemical element or compound provided in the diet that can support growth, reproduction, lactation or maintenance of life processes

3

What are the percentages of nutrients of our bodies

61% water
17% protein
6% minerals
14% lipids
1.5% carbs
less than 1% vitamins

4

What is significant about the chemical composition of animals with different body weights etc

it varies depending on dietary measures, age, health

Remember that animal vs human nutrition is they have different desired outcomes. Humans = healthy, animals = a final good product

5

what are the six classes of nutrients

water
carbs
lipids
protein (amino acid)
vitamins
minerals

6

what do carbs contain

oxygen carbon hydrogen

7

what are the classes of carbs

1.simple sugars: (glucose)
- primary energy source for cells
2.complex carbs: (cellulose-fiber)
- maintain health of digestive system
- compound sugars made up a lot of simple sugars

8

What are some carb containing foods and what does it help with

simple: breads, cereal
complex: hay

Energy content, digestive health

9

What do proteins consist of

carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur atoms

10

what are the functions of protein

structural role (muscle skin)
internal communication (hormones)
source of energy (not ideal)

11

What are some protein containing foods

corn, meats

12

What do lipids consist of

carbon oxygen hydrogen atoms

13

what are the functions of lipids

source of a large amount of energy
major component of cell membranes (lipid bilayer)
regulation of cellular processes

14

what is the formula for lipids

Cn H2n+2 O1 (terminal hydrogens at each end and at least one oxygen)

15

what is the formula for carbs

CnH2nOn

16

What are the functions of water

dissolves and carries nutrients, gases, waste
provides environment for chemical reactions
body temp regulation

17

what do vitamins consist of
What makes vitamins different from carbs and lipids

carbon oxygen and hydrogen

they do not provide structure of energy

18

What are the two classifications of vitamins

water soluble (b-vitamins and vitamin C)
fat soluble (vitamins a, d, e, k)

19

What are the functions of vitamins

regulate body processes
promote growth and development
build and maintain tissues
assist in use of enerfy from carbs, protein, lipids

20

What are minerals

all inorganic substances in the body besides water
-naturally occur in the earth
-not used directly for energy

21

What are the functions of minerals

structural role (calcium)
regulation of body processes (sodium)
facilitate chemical reactions (selenium)

22

what are the two inorganic nutrients

water, minerals

23

which classes of nutrients provide no structure or energy

vitamins, minerals, water

24

What is an essential nutrient vs a nonessential nutrient

1. essential: a chemical element/compound that must be obtained in the diet because
-cannot synthesize it or cant in sufficient amounts
-easy to find in environment

2. nonessential: chem element the body synthesizes in sufficient amounts if it is lacking in the diet
- we synthesize this because its not easily attained in the diet

25

what is a micronutrient vs a macronutrient

micro= need only a little of

macro= need a lot

26

what is an organic nutrient vs inorganic nutrient

1. organic: substance contains c-c or c-hydrogen bonds (carbs, proteins, lipids, vitamins)

2. inorganic: substance that does NOT contain c-c or c-h bonds (water minerals)

27

what are the major functions of nutrients

structure of cells and tissues
regulation of body functions
energy provision

28

what is calorie and how is it measured

calorie: amount of heat required to raise the temp of 1 g of water per 1 degree c

Kcal= 1 kg water per 1 degree c

measured by a bomb calorimeter

29

what is the caloric content for
carbs
proteins
lipids

carbs: 4 kcal/g
proteins: 4 kcal/g
lipid: 9 kcal/g