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Flashcards in AVS 209 Quiz 3 Deck (48):

____________ feeding provides an area where young nursing animals can have access to high quality starter feeds, while their mother's cannot access this feed. This can increase weight gain and allow lambs to be marketed at younger ages.



New borns should receive colostrum soon after born, because absorption of __________ decreases over time.



Compared to when beef cattle numbers were highest in the us, the current beef industry...
a. produces less total manure and methane
b. has larger faster growing cattle
c. produces more total beef with fewer cattle
d. require less total feed water and land
e. produces more beef per animal
f. emits less greenhouse gas



Regarding breeds of cattle
a. charolais may be either horned or polled
b. brangus are relatively heat tolerant
c. shorthorn originated as dual purpose cattle
d. limousine are relatively muscular



A two breed rotational crossbreeding system
a. increases benefits from heterosis compared with three breed crosses
b. is a strategy to maintain two purebred cow herds
c.potentially produces more improvement in weaning weight than purebred systems
d. generally requires fewer cows and breeding pastures than three breed systems



Stocker or background cattle
a. often consume forage or roughage as their primary feed
b. utilize inexpensive feedstuffs to obtain greater than or equal to 1.5 lbs of body weight gain per day
c. may be more valuable in the late winter or early spring due to limited cattle supply
d. commonly exhibit acidosis and bloat due to high protein in the diet
e. are often fed crop residues or forages
f. typically gain more than 3 pounds per day
g. are typically cattle that have recently been weaned



Compared with Brahman cattle, Hereford cattle tend to
a. be more docile
b. produce more tender beef
c. be more heat tolerant and insect resistant
d. have larger ears and humps over their shoulders



Prior to being shipped to a feedlot, weaned calves should be preconditioned by being
a. adapted to feed bunk and waterer
b. castrated, dehorned, and healed
c. vaccinated and treated for parasites
d.provided colostrum to improve immune function



Feedlot cattle
a. fed rapidly fermentable grains can get acidosis if not adapted slowly to grain
b. may receive urea, soybean meal, or canola meal as a protein source as well as non protein nitrogen
c. will generally exhibit compensatory growth if thin when entering the feedlot
d. will eat more during hot weather or in muddy condition than in cool, dry conditions
e. typically fed ionophores like rumensin to reduce acidosis
f. will generally exhibit compensatory growth if thin when entering feedlot
g. are frequently implanted with androgenic and estrogenic steroids to improve efficeny



Feedlot steers
a. gain weight faster than heifers
b. typically gain more than 3.5 lbs per day
c. require more feed per pound of gain than heifers
d. are easier to manage than bulls



Corn and wheat grains would be expected to have
a. less crude protein than cottonseed meal
b. more energy but less protein than alfalfa hay
c. less crude fiber than grass
d. more digestible energy than grass



Regarding beef cow body condition sources (BCS)
a. a BCS 1 cow is emaciated and weak, whereas BCS 5 or 6 are more ideal
b. BCS 8 or 9 cows cost less to maintain than BCS 4 cows because they are easy keepers
c. BCS 3 cows generally have lower conception rates and lower calf vigor than BCS 5 cows
d. BCS 9 cows have the highest pregnancy rates and lowest incidence of dystocia



Which of the following have lower total energy and protein requirements than a 1300 lb dry (non-lactating) cow in late gestation
a. 1100 lb dry cow in late gestation
b. 1300 lb dry cow in mid lactation
c. 1300 postpartum cow producing 10 lbs of milk
d. 1400 postpartum cow in late gestation



The largest proportion of cow inventory is on ranches with 100 to 499 cows, but the largest proportion of beef cow operations have less than 50 cows



Beef heifers are typically bred so that they calve at 24 months of age and should be bred to bulls with relatively low calving ease EPDs and high birth weight EPDs



Winter feed costs can represent approximately 35 ro 40% of the gross revenue of cow-calf producers, and this may increase if cows calve in the winter months



Castration of bull calves should be done when they are greater than 700 lbs because these calves are better able to tolerate the stress than younger calves. You also get super-sized calf fries or extra long rocky mountain oysters



The cattle industry is the largest livestock component of agriculture in the United states and the US is the most efficient beef producing country due to application of tech and feedlot finishing



In a terminal crossbreeding program, all offspring are intended as meat producing animals,so emphasis in sire selection should be on growth rate and carcass traits



A mature bull can generally service about 40 cows, whereas a yearling bull may only be expected to service about 20 cows



Provide two specific reasons why black angus cattle have become the most popular beef breed in the us

They have had the best marketing
black color has become more desirable
they advertise for good carcass traits and present a quality product due to their high regulations to be registered
good marling quality
good growth rate


From a genetic improvement standpoint, two good commandments that should be followed when producing commercial beef cattle

superior sires
always crossbreed (this one right)


If a cow calf producer's sole source of income is the calf corp, identify two strategies the producer could use to improve profitability

more than one breeding pasture


What are the primary intended uses of cattle produced by seedstock producers and commercial cow calf producers

seedstock= breeding stock
commercial= beef producing


What is bloat? what is one way to either prevent or treat bloat?

bloat is when a frothy layer of liquid sits in the rumen stomach and prevents gas from leaving

prevent it by measuring how much the animal eats? (find better answer)


Describe the periods of the cow's production cycle that corresponds with the nutrient requirements during the periods.

A= dry cow/ not lactating
B= 3rd trimester / late gestation
C= lactation


In addition to visual appraisal, what are two other methods used to evaluate breeding animals?

calving ease


Provide the top three visual criteria you would use in selecting a Charolais bull and briefly justify your criteria

1- leg structure= the hocks to the pasterns need to be correct so that the animal can walk and distribute weight properly
2- volume/depth= do not want a small weak cow
3- correct bone structure= wide stance straight back


Body compostition is a more important selection trait for market livestock than breeding animals



Which of the following have higher total energy and protein requirements ethan an 1100 lb dry (nonlactating) cow in late gestation
a. 1300 lb dry cow in late gestation
b. 1100 lb dry cow in mid gestation
c. 1100 postpartum cow producing 10 lb of milk
d. 1100 postpartum cow producing 20 lb of milk



Winter backgrounding of calves is historically more profitable than summer grazing of yearlings because cattle have access to better quality feed in the winter and grow faster



During the production cycle of a cow or ewe, the highest nutrient requirements will be during ________ , whereas the lowest nutrient requirements will be ______________

just after weaning


Rapid fermentation and excess gas production, combined with foaming or a slime layer that prevents gas escape, results in __________



Indicators of muscularity in market livestock include
a. width of leg placement
b. depth of jowl or brisket
c. uniformity of toe size
d. thickness of hind leg



Which of the following are consider british breeds of cattle
a. limousine
b. Hereford
c. Simmental
d. angus



Charlais cattle
a. are noted for their muscularity and growth rate
b. are considered dual purpose breed
c. originate in france
d. are white in color



A three breed rotational crossbreeding system
a. increases benefits from heterosis compared with two breed crosses
b. is a strategy to maintain three purebred cow herds
c. produces more improvement in weaning weight than two breed rotational crosses
d. generally requires more cows and breeding pasture than two breed systems



In a terminal crossbreeding program
a. replacement females need to produce somewhere else
b. improvements in weaning weight due to heterosis should be obtained
c. a breeding season of 60 days will result in a relatively uniform calf crop, which is desirable
d. charolais or limousine bulls may be used to improve muscularity of calves intended for beef



India has more cattle than any other country, but the US produces more beef than any other country, and the US also imports more beef than any other country



Three large beef processing companies, Tyson, JBS, and EXcel/Cargill, harvest over 80% of feedlot cattle in the US



Because heterosis stabilizes at 86% of maximum in three breed rotational crosses, over 80% of the cattle produced in the US utilize this crossbreeding system



The first breed of cattle introduced into the US was the ___________. The __________ breed, which are red and white faced cattle that can be either horned or polled, became popular in the US because of their hardiness in range conditons



What is meant by a dual purpose breed of cattle? Provide an example of a dual purpose breed.

they are used for both meat and milk
Simmental are a dual purpose breed


From a genetic improvement standpoint, two good rules for producing commercial beef cattle or other market livestock are to do what? ( according to Dr. Glaze)

Choose good sires


In the beef industry, how does the role of a seedstock producer differ from that of a commercial cow calf producer

In seedstock you breed a lot of replacement heifers
in cow calf they are usually terminal


Provide three potential reasons why you might cull a breeding female based on skeletal features

small feet
tight ribcage
post legged


Explain two stratigies that could be used to prevent the transmission of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) at the Latah county fair

better ventilation
do not hoose lambs with cows


List three features of a closed herd

does not buy new cattle
no exposure to insects
no exposure to bacteria