Anatomy of the leg and foot Flashcards Preview

Module 204 Theme 2 > Anatomy of the leg and foot > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy of the leg and foot Deck (86):
1

List the functions of the foot

Support body weight

Stability/standing

Locomotion/propulsion (lever)

Shock absorption

2

Name the two bones in the leg

Tibia
Fibular

3

What is between the tibia and fibula?

Interosseous membrane

4

Name the joints between the tibia and fibula

Superior tibiofibular joint
Inferior tibiofibular joint

5

Where is the inferior tibiofibular joint located?

Between the medial and lateral malleolus

6

List the groups of bones in the feet

Tarsals
Metatarsals
Phalanges

7

Where is the superior tibiofibular joint located?

Between the medial and lateral condyles

8

Name the 7 tarsal bones

Calcaneous
Talus
Cuboid
Navicular
Cuneiforms

9

Name the two landmarks of the calcaneous

Calcaneal tuberosity
Sustentaculum tali

10

What type of bones are the metatarsals?

Sesamoid bones

11

List the movements of the feet

Dorsiflexion/extension
Plantarflexion/flexion
Eversion
Inversion
Supination
Pronation

12

Describe supination of the feet

Feet together - inversion of front of foot

13

Describe pronation of the feet

feet apart - eversion of front of foot

14

Name the joints in the foot

Ankle joint

Intertarsal joint

Metatarsophalangeal joint

Interphalangeal joint

15

What movement does the ankle joint do?

Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion

16

What movement does the intertarsal joint do?

Invert/evert

Supinate/pronate

17

What movements do the metatarsophalangeal joints do?

Extension/flexion
Limited abduction/adduction

18

What movements do the interphalangeal joints do?

Extension and flexion

19

What is the ankle joint?

Articulation between talus and tibia/fibula

20

What type of joint is the ankle joint?

Synovial hinge joint

21

List the ligaments that stabilize the ankle joint

Lateral collateral ligament
Medial/deltoid collateral ligament

22

Where is the lateral ligament located?

Lateral malleolus to talus/calcaneous

23

Where is the medial/deltoid ligament located?

Medial malleolus to talus/calcaneous/navicular

24

What is the clinical significance of the lateral ligament

Injury

25

Where is the subtalar joint?

Between talus and calcaneous and navicular

26

What does the subtalar joint allow?

Inversion and eversion during locomotion

27

Where is the transverse tarsal joint?

Between forefoot and hindfoot

28

What does the transverse tarsal joint allow?

Pronation and supination
Eversion and inversion of the forefoot
Important for standing on uneven ground

29

What is the plantar aponeurosis?

Thickening of the deep fascia
Protects underlying structure
Supports longitudinal arch

30

What is the clinical significance of the plantar aponeurosis?

Plantar fasciitis - inflammation due to overuse

31

Name the arches of the foot

Longitudinal and transverse arches

32

What are the functions of the arches of the foot?

Shock absorbers during locomotion

Act as springboards

Distribution of weight (to calcaneous + ball of foot)

33

Name the longitudinal arches

Medial and lateral

34

What are the longitudinal arches supported by?

long tendons, intrinsic plantar muscles, intrinsic ligaments and plantar aponeurosis

35

What is the clinical significance of the arches of the foot?

Fallen medial longitudinal arch can lead to pes planus (flat feet)

36

What is the transverse arch supported by?

Long tendons (mainly fibularis longus)

37

What action do the muscles of the anterior compartment do?

Extend(dorsiflex)/invert the foot

38

What action do the muscles of the posterior compartment do?

Flex/invert the foot

39

What action do muscles of the lateral compartment do?

Evert foot

40

Which nerve supplies the anterior compartment?

Deep fibular nerve

41

Which nerve supplies the posterior compartment?

Tibial nerve

42

Which nerve supplies the lateral compartment?

Superficial fibular nerve

43

How many muscles are in the anterior compartment of the leg

3

44

Name the 3 muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg

Tibialis anterior
Extensor digitorum longus
Extensor hallucis longus

45

Where do muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg originate?

Tibia and fibular

46

What action does tibialis anterior do?

Extends/inverts the foot

47

What action does extensor digitorum longus do?

Extends lateral 4 toes

48

What action does extensor hallucis longus do?

Extends the great toe

49

Where does extensor digitorum longus insert?

Middle and distal phalanges

50

Where does tibialis anterior insert?

Medial cuneiform and 1st metatarsal

51

Where does extensor hallucis longus insert?

Distal phalanx of the great toe

52

What is the function of the muscles in the superficial group of the posterior compartment of the leg?

Flex (plantar flex) the foot and leg

53

Name the muscles in the superficial group of the posterior compartment of the leg

Soleus
Gastrocnemius
Plantaris

54

Give the origin of plantaris

Femur

55

Give the origin of gastrocnemius

Condyles of femur

56

Give the origin of soleus

Tibia and fibular

57

What are the muscles in the superficial group of the posterior compartment of the leg supplied by?

Tibial nerve

58

What muscle actions do the deep group of the posterior compartment of the leg do?

Flex (plantar flex) and invert foot and flex toes

59

Give the origin of the deep group in the posterior compartment of the leg

Tibia and fibula

60

Name the muscles in the deep group of the posterior compartment of the leg

Flexor digitorum longus
Tibialis posterior
Flexor hallucis longus

61

What is the action of flexor digitorum longus

Flexor of lateral 4 toes

62

What is the action of tibialis posterior?

Inverter of the foot

63

What is the function of flexor hallucis longus?

Flexor of the big toe

64

Which nerve supplies the muscles of the deep group of the posterior compartment of the leg?

Tibial nerve

65

Where does flexor digitorum longus insert?

Distal phalanges

66

Where does flexor hallucis longus insert?

Distal phalanx of great toe

67

Where does tibialis posterior insert?

Medial cuneiform and navicular

68

What is the function of the lateral compartment of the leg?

Evert foot

69

Name the muscles in the lateral compartment of the leg

Fibularis longus
Fibularis brevis

70

What is the function of fibularis longus?

Everts and plantar flexes foot
Maintains transverse arch

71

Which nerve supplies the lateral compartment of the leg?

Superficial fibular nerve

72

Give the origin of the muscles in the lateral compartment of the leg

Fibula

73

Where does fibularis longus insert?

Medial cuneiform and 1st metatarsal

74

Where does fibularis brevis insert?

5th metatarsal

75

List the contents of the tarsal tunnel

Tibialis posterior
Flexor digitorum longus
Posterior tibial artery/vein
Tibial nerve
Flexor hallucis longus

76

What is the clinical significance of the tarsal tunnel?

Pulse

77

What does the lateral plantar artery form?

Deep plantar arch

78

Where does the dorsalis pedis artery sit?

Beside extensor hallucis tendon

79

What does the dorsalis pedis artery anastomose with?

Deep plantar arch

80

What is the clinical significance of the dorsalis pedis artery?

Pulse

81

Which nerves supply the leg?

Terminal branches of the sciatic nerve

Tibial nerve - posterior compartment
Deep fibular - Anterior compartment
Superficial fibular - lateral compartment

82

Give the clinical significance of the tibial nerve

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

83

What does the tibial nerve supply?

Motor to posterior compartment of leg and plantar intrinsic muscles

84

What does the common fibular nerve supply

Motor
- Deep - Anterior compartment of the leg and dorsal intrinsic muscles.
- Superficial - Lateral compartment of the leg

85

What is the clinical Significance of the common fibular nerve?

Trauma results in a foot drop

86

What is the function of the medial and lateral plantar (tibial) nerves?

Supply the sole of the foot