Gait, anatomy and physiology of walking Flashcards Preview

Module 204 Theme 2 > Gait, anatomy and physiology of walking > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gait, anatomy and physiology of walking Deck (36):
1

How is walking both simple and complicated?

Simple - we do not have to think about it
Complicated - Involves many structures in the body

2

What structures in the body are involved in walking?

MSK - Muscles, tendons, bones, joints
Nervous system - Sensory, motor, autonomic, proprioception
Cardiovascular system - Heart and blood vessels
Special senses - Vision and hearing

3

What may problems with systems involved in walking affect?

Ability to walk

4

What does Gait describe?

Straight line walking/running
Jumping
Terrain adjustment
Turning
A combination of movements

5

How is the gait cycle divided?

Stride - Stance and swing

6

List the stages of the gait cycle

Initial contact
Loading response
Midstance
Terminal stance
Preswing
Initial swing
Midswing
Terminal swing

7

Describe the position of joints in heel strike/initial contact phase (0-2%)

Foot in contact with the floor
Hip flexion
Neutral knee
Ankle dorsiflexion
Big toe in dorsiflexion

8

What is the heel strike/initial contact phase used for?

Slowing down and control of landing

9

Describe the joint position in loading response (2-12%)

Lots of eccentric contraction
Hip flexion
knee flexion
Ankle dorsiflexion
1st MTPJ neutral

10

Describe the positions of muscles in initial contact

Hip extensors contract to control hip flexion via momentum

Gracilis contracts (isometric) to control hip flexion and knee extension

Knee flexors contract (concentric) start knee flexion

Knee extensors contract (eccentric) to control knee flexion

Ankle dorsiflexiors contract (eccentric) to prevent foot slapping

11

Describe the position of the muscles in the loading response

Hip extensors contract to start hip extension

Knee flexors contract (concentric) to keep the knee in flexion

Knee extensors contract (eccentric) to control knee in flexion

Gastrocnemius contracts to keep the knee in flexion

Ankle dorsiflexion contract (eccentric) to prevent foot slapping

Ankle plantarflexors contract (concentric) to bring foot in contact with the ground

12

Describe joint position in mid stance (12-31%)

Hip neutral
Knee extension
Ankle neutral
1st MTPJ neutral

13

Describe muscle activities in mid stance (12-31%)

Hip extensors contract (concentric) to keep hip in extension

Knee flexors contract (eccentric) to control knee extension via momentum

Grastrocnemius contracts (eccentric) to control knee extension via momentum

Ankle plantarflexrs contract (eccentric) to stabilise the foot

14

Describe joint position during terminal stance (31-50%)

Hip extension

Knee full extension

Ankle dorsiflexion

1st MTPJ neutral/dorsiflexion

15

Describe muscle activities in terminal stance

Hip flexors contract (eccentric) to control hip extension via momentum

Gastrocnemius contracts (eecentic) to control knee extension via momentum

Ankle plantarflexors contraction (eccentric) to control ankle dorsiflexion via body weight

16

Describe joint position in pre swing phase (50-62%)

Hip neutral

Knee flexion

Ankle plantarflexion

1st MTPJ dorsiflexion

17

Describe muscle activities of pre-swing phase (50-62%)

Hip flexors contract (concentric) to start hip flexion

Gracilis contracts (concentric) to assist the knee in flexion

Gastrocnemius contracts (concentric) to bring the knee in flexion

Ankle plantarflexors contract (concentric) to propel body forward then ankle dorsiflexors contract (concentric) to keep foot off the ground

18

Describe joint position in initial swing (62-75%)

Hip neutral/flexion

Knee flexion

Ankle neutral/dorsiflexion

1st MTPJ dorsiflexion/neutral

19

Describe muscle activities in initial swing (62-75%)

Hip flexors contract (concentric) to keep hip in flexion

Gracilis contracts (concentric) to keep the knee in flexion

Ankle dorsiflexors contract (concentric) to keep foot off the ground

20

Describe joint position in mid swing (75-87%)

Hip flexion

Knee flexion

Ankle dorsiflexion

1st MTPJ dorsiflexion

21

Describe muscle activities in midswing (75-87%)

Hip extensors contract (eccentric) to control hip flexion

Gracilis contracts (concentric) to keep hip and knee in flexion

Knee flexors contract (concentiric) to keep the lower leg off the ground

Ankle dorsiflexion contract (concentric) to keep foot off ground

22

Describe joint position in terminal swing

Hip flexion

Knee flexion/neutral

Ankle dorsiflexion

1st MTPJ dorsiflexion

23

Describe muscle activities in terminal swing

Hip extensors contract (eccentric) to control hip flexion via momentum

Gracilis contracts (isometric) to control hip flexion and knee extension

Knee extensors contract (concentric) to bring the knee into extension

Ankle dorsiflexors contract (concentric) to keep foot off the ground

24

What happens with an increase in speed?

Increase impact and stride length

25

Describe the stages of jumping

Acceleration - Powerful push off
During the jump
Deceleration - landing

26

What type of contraction occurs during acceleration?

Concentric

27

What type of contraction occurs during deceleration?

Eccentric

28

List some types of turing

Step turn
Ipsilateral pivot
Ipsilateral crossover

29

Which type of turning involves the most amount of steps?

Step turn

30

Define base of support

Area within an outline of all ground contact points

31

Define centre of mass

The average position of all parts of the system weighted according to their mass

32

When does terrain adjustment occur?

Stairs - up and down
Uneven surfaces
Various surface properties (eg. soft/hard/slippery)

33

What information does terrain adjustment require?

Sensory information

34

If you want a complete gait analysis what must you take into account?

Daily walking - to and from work/school/shops
Activities - sports/dance
Surfaces - smooth/uneven/soft/hard
Straight line walking in clinic alone is insufficient
Compensatory mechanism

35

List some conditions which may interrupt gait

MSK - arthritis, tendinopathy, ligament injury
Neurological conditions - Parkinsons, cerebral palsy ,CVA, peripheral neuropathy
Pain
Behavioural issues
Supply of energy

36

Name a screening tool for Gait

GALS