Anatomy of the hand Flashcards Preview

Module 204 Theme 2 > Anatomy of the hand > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy of the hand Deck (67):
1

Name the bones found in the hand

Carpals
Metacarpals
Phalanges

2

Name the carpal bones

Lunate
Scaphoid
Triquteal/triquteum
Pisiform
Trapezium
Trapezoid
Capitate
Hamate

3

What is the clinical significance of a fracture to the scaphoid column?

slow recovery - poor blood supply to proximal part: avascular necrosis

4

Name the joints of the hand

Wrist (radiocarpal)
Midcarpal/intercarpal
Carpometacarpal
Metacarpophalangeal
Interphalangeal

5

Where is the wrist (radiocarpal) joint located?

Between radius/disc and first carpal row

6

What reinforces the radiocarpal joint?

Ligaments

7

What is the function of the radial and ulnar ligaments?

Limits abduction/adduction

8

What is the function of the ligaments on the palmar and dorsal surfaces?

Limits extension and flexion

9

What is the function of the radial styloid process?

Limits range of abduction

10

What movements does the wrist perform?

Flexion/extension
Circumduction
Abduction/adduction

11

What type of joints are the carpometacarpal?

Planar - limited movement

12

Where is the saddle joint located?

Carpometacarpal of the thumb - opposable thumb

13

Name the movements of the thumb

extension, flexion, abduction, adduction, opposition, reposition

14

What type of joints are the metacarpophalangeal joints?

Condylar joints

15

What movements do the metacarpophalangeal joints perform?

Flexion/extension
Abduction/adduction

16

Describe the deep transverse metacarpal ligament

- Unifies metacarpals
- Not between digit 1 and 2

17

What type of joints are the interphalangeal joints?

Hinge joints

18

What movement do the interphalangeal joints perform?

Flexion/extension

19

Name the two interphalangeal joints

Proximal
Distal

20

Describe the palmar aponeurosis

Thickened deep fascia
Triangular

21

What is the palmar aponeurosis continuous with?

Palmaris longus

22

What is the clinical significance of the palmar aponeurosis?

Dupuytren’s contracture

23

Describe the travel of the long flexor tendons to the digits

From muscles in anterior forearm
Pass through carpal tunnel

24

What digits do Flexor digitorum superficialis and Flexor digitorum profundus extend to?

d2-5

25

Which digit does Flexor pollicis longus extend to?

d1

26

What is the function of Flexor retinaculum
(transverse carpal ligament)?

Prevents bowing of tendons

27

Which long extensor tendons innervate d2-d5

Extensor digitorum

Extensor indicis

Extensor digit minimi

28

Which long extensor tendons innervate d1?

Extensor pollicis longus

Extensor pollicis brevis

Abductor pollicis longus

29

Give the borders of the anatomical snuffbox

Abductor pollicis longus

Extensor pollicis brevis

Extensor pollicis longus

30

Where does abductor pollicis longus insert?

To base of 1st metacarpal

31

Where does extensor pollicis brevis insert?

To base of proximal phalanx

32

Where does extensor pollicis longus insert?

To base of distal phalanx

33

What inserts into the extensor hoods?

Lumbricals and interossei

34

Describe lumbricals

Link flexor to extensor tendons
- Extend interphalangeal joints and flex MCP joints
- Precision grip (hold pen / pinch)

35

Describe the palmar interossei

Interossei sit between the metacarpals
Palmar adduct (PAD) MCP joints

36

How many palmar interossei are there?

3

37

Where are there no palmar interossei?

No palmar interossei for D1 (performed by adductor pollicis muscle) or D3

38

How many dorsal interossei are there?

4

39

Describe the function of dorsal interossei

Dorsal abduct (DAB) MCP joints

40

Where are there no dorsal interossei?

No dorsal interossei for D1 or D5 (performed by thenar and hypothenar muscles

41

What is the function of the thenar muscles?

Fine movements of the thumb (d1)

42

What is the function of the hypothenar muscles?

Fine movements of the little finger (d5)

43

Where do the thenar and hypothenar muscles originate?

flexor retinaculum and adjacent carpal bones

44

Name the 3 thenar muscles

Opponens pollicis (deepest)
Abductor pollicis brevis
Flexor pollicis brevis

45

Where does opponens pollicis insert?

Into first metacarpal

46

Where do abductor pollicis brevis and flexor pollicis brevis insert?

Into proximal phalanx

47

Name the 3 hypothenar muscles

Opponens digiti minimi (deepest)
Abductor digiti minimi
Flexor digiti minimi

48

Where does opponens digiti minimi insert?

Into fifth metacarpal

49

Where do abductor pollicis brevis and flexor pollicis brevis insert?

Into proximal phalanx

50

Which muscles are involved in adduction of the thumb

Adductor pollicis:

51

Name the heads of the adductor pollicis muscle

Oblique and transverse

52

Where does the oblique head of adductor pollicis originate?

Base 2nd and 3rd metacarpal + carpal bones

53

Where does the oblique head of adductor pollicis insert?

Proximal phalanx

54

Where does the transverse head of adductor pollicis originate?

3rd metacarpal

55

Where does the transverse head of adductor pollicis insert?

Proximal phalanx

56

Where is adductor pollicis found?

Deep to the thenar muscles

57

Which arteries anastomose at the hand

Radial and ulnar artery

58

Where is the deep palmar arch located?

Below long flexor tendons

59

Which artery is the main supply to D1 and D2?

Radial artery

60

Where is the superficial palmar arch located?

Above long flexor tendons

61

Which artery is the main supply to half D2to D5?

Ulnar artery

62

Where does the median nerve pass?

Passes through the carpal tunnel

63

What is the function of the digital nerves?

Lateral 2 lumbricals
Sensory d1 to ½ d4

64

What is the clinical significance of the median nerve?

Carpal tunnel

65

What is the clinical significance of the ulnar nerve?

Clawed hand

66

What is the function of the deep branch of the ulnar nerve?

Hypothenar muscles
Interossei
Medial 2 lumbricals
Adductor pollicis

67

What is the function of the superficial branch of the ulnar nerve?

Sensory ½ d4 and d5