Gluteal region and thigh dissection Flashcards Preview

Module 204 Theme 2 > Gluteal region and thigh dissection > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gluteal region and thigh dissection Deck (114):
1

Name the 3 gluteal muscles

Gluteus maximus
Gluteus medius
Gluteus minimus

2

Name a short lateral rotator found in the pelvis

Piriformis

3

Which is the most superficial of the gluteal muscles?

Gluteus maximus

4

State the origin of gluteus maximus

Ilium and sacrum

5

State the insertion of gluteus maximus

Gluteal tuberosity on the posterior surface of the femur
Iliotibial tract

6

Describe the iliotibial tract

Thick fibrous band running down the lateral side of the thigh to the knee

7

Which muscles lie deep to gluteus maximus?

Gluteus medius and Gluteus minimus

8

Where do gluteus minimus and medius originate?

Ilium

9

Where do gluteus minimus and medius insert?

Greater trochanter of the femur

10

Give the origin of piriformis muscle

Sacrum

11

State the insertion of piriformis muscle

Greater trochanter of the femur

12

State the action of piriformis

Laterally rotates the thigh at the hip

13

Why is piriformis an important landmark?

Sciatic nerve can be seen passing below it

14

What can be observed as well as the sciatic nerve below piriformis?

A series of short rotator muscles

15

Which nerves supply the gluteal muscles?

Gluteal nerves

16

State the travel of the inferior gluteal nerve

Passes out of the pelvis with the inferior gluteal vessels below piriformis muscle to innervate gluteus maximus

17

State the travel of the superior gluteal nerve

Passes out of the pelvis with the superior gluteal vessels above piriformis to innervate the gluteus medius and minimus muscles

18

What is the most prominent nerve in the gluteal region?

Sciatic nerve

19

Describe the travel of the sciatic nerve

Enters the gluteal region through the greater sciatic foramen under the inferior border of piriformis in the posterior thigh

20

What is the greater sciatic foramen bordered by?

Greater sciatic notch
Sacrospinous ligament
Sacrotuberous ligament

21

Name the muscles of the posterior compartment

Biceps femoris
Semitendinosus
Semimembranosus

22

What are the muscles of the posterior compartment commonly known as?

Hamstrings

23

Where do the hamstrings originate?

Ischial tuberosity

24

Where does the long head of biceps femoris originate?

Ischial tuberosity

25

Where does the short head of biceps femoris originate?

Shaft of the femur

26

Where does biceps femoris insert?

Head of the fibula

27

On what side of the posterior of the leg is the biceps femoris?

Lateral

28

On which side of the posterior of the leg are semimembranosus and semitendinosus?

Medial

29

What does semitendinosus end in?

Long tendon that passes over semimembranosus

30

Where do both semitendinosus and semimembranosus insert?

Tibia

31

Which nerve supplies the hamstrings?

Tibial component of the sciatic nerve

32

Where does the sciatic nerve pass?

Through the posterior compartment of the thigh

33

Where is the popliteal fossa located?

Back of the knee

34

What is the shape of the popliteal fossa?

Diamond

35

What are the superior boundaries of the popliteal fossa?

Semimembranosus
Semitendinosus (medially)
Biceps femoris (Laterally)

36

What are the inferior boundaries of the popliteal fossa?

Two heads of gastrocnemius

37

What happens to the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa?

Divides into tibial and common fibular

38

Where does the common fibular nerve lie in the popliteal fossa?

Medial to tendon of biceps femoris

39

What happens to the common fibular nerve when it reaches the lateral aspect of the fossa?

Curves forwards around the neck of the fibula

40

What are the popliteal vessels a continuation of?

The femoral vessels

41

What does the short saphenous vein drain?

Lateral side of the foot

42

What does the short saphenous vein merge with in the popliteal fossa?

Popliteal vein

43

What type of joint is the hip joint?

Ball and socket

44

What is the hip joint between?

Head of femur
Acetabulum

45

What are the movements of the thigh at the hip?

extension
flexion
abduction
adduction
lateral (external) rotation
medial (internal) rotation

46

What is the primary function of the hip joint

Weight bearing

47

Name the two groups of ligaments which stabilise the hip joint

Intracapsular
Extracapsular

48

Name the extracapsular ligaments of the hip

Iliofemoral
Pubofemoral
Ischiofemoral

49

Where are the extracapsular ligaments of the hip located

Anterior, inferior and posterior
Attach on the neck of the femur

50

What does the fascia lata form?

Sleeve around each muscle compartment

51

Where does the fascia lata extend?

From iliac crests and is continuous with the deep fascia of the leg

52

What thickens the fascia lata laterally?

Iliotibial tract

53

Name the muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh

Quadriceps femoris
Sartorius
Tensor fascia lata

54

Give the origin of the tensor fascia lata muscle

Anterior superior iliac spine

55

Give the insertion of the tensor fascia lata muscle

Iliotibial tract

56

What is the function of the tensor fascia lata muscle?

Tightens iliotibial tract

Helps stabilize the knee when standing

57

What is the most superficial muscle on the anterior of the thigh?

Sartorius

58

Give the origin of sartorius

Anterior superior iliac spine

59

Where does sartorius sweep?

From lateral to medial across the thigh

60

Where does sartorius insert?

Tibia

61

Name the longest muscle in the body

Sartorius

62

Name the 4 parts which form quadriceps femoris muscle

Rectus femoris
Vastus intermedius
Vastus lateralis
Vastus medialis

63

Which muscle is the most superficial of quadriceps femoris?

Rectus femoris

64

Give the origin of rectus femoris

Anterior inferior iliac spine from above the acetabulum

65

What does rectus femoris form distally?

Quadriceps tendon

66

Give the origin of the 3 vasti muscles

Femur

67

Which tendon do the 3 vasti contribute to?

Quadriceps

68

Where is vastus intermedius located?

Directly below rectus femoris

69

Which muscles lie either side of rectus femoris?

Vastus medialis
Vastus lateralis

70

What is the quadriceps tendon attached to?

The superior border and sides of the patella

71

Name the largest sesamoid bone of the body

Patella

72

Describe the shape of the patella and the articulation it forms as a result

Concave posterior surface
Underlying femur articulation

73

Where do the oblique fibres of vastus medialis sit?

Horizontal

74

Where do the oblique fibres of vastus medialis insert?

Medial side of the patella

75

What ligament forms at the lower border of the patella?

Patella ligament

76

Where does the patella ligament insert?

Tibial tuberosity

77

Which two muscles form iliopsoas?

Iliacus
Psoas major

78

Where does iliacus originate?

Iliac fossa

79

Where does psoas major originate?

Lumbar vertebrae

80

Where does iliopsoas insert?

Lesser trochanter of the femur

81

What is the anterior compartment and skin on the thigh supplied by?

Femoral nerve

82

Where does the femoral nerve enter the anterior compartment?

Below the inguinal ligament into the femoral triangle

83

What muscles do the branches of the femoral nerve supply?

Sartorius
Quadriceps
Pectineus

84

Name a purely sensory nerve that the femoral nerve gives off as a branch

Saphenous nerve

85

List the muscles in the medial compartment of the thigh

Pectineus
Gracilis
Adductor longus
Adductor brevis
Adductor magnus

86

Where does pectineus originate?

Pubis

87

Where does pectineus insert?

Femur below lesser trochanter

88

Give the origin of adductor longus

Pubis

89

Where does adductor longus insert?

Linea aspera of the femur

90

Where does adductor brevis originate?

Pubis

91

Where does adductor brevis insert?

Linea aspera of the femur

92

Name the two portions of the adductor magnus muscle

Adductor part
Hamstrings part

93

Give the origin of the adductor part

Ischiopubic ramus

94

Give the insertion of the adductor part

Whole length of linea aspera

95

Give the origin of the hamstrings part

Ischial tuberosity

96

Give the insertion of the hamstrings part

Adductor tubercle of the femur

97

What does the tendon of the hamstring part form?

Adductor hiatus

98

What passes through the adductor hiatus?

Femoral artery and vein to reach the popliteal fossa

99

Give the origin of gracilis

Pubis

100

Give the insertion of gracilis

Tibia

101

What nerve supplies the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh?

Obturator nerve

102

Which muscles doesnt the obturator nerve supply in the medial compartment of the thigh?

Pectineus
Hamstring part of adductor magnus

103

Which nerve supplies the skin on the medial aspect of the thigh?

Obturator nerve

104

Where does the obturator nerve pass out of the pelvis?

Obturator canal

105

What is the obturator canal?

Small opening in the obturator membrane

106

Where is the femoral triangle located?

Superior part of the anterior of the thigh

107

Give the borders of the femoral triangle

Superior - inguinal ligament
Medial - medial border of adductor longus
Lateral - sartorius

108

Which muscles form the floor of the femoral triangle?

Iliopsoas
Pectineus
Adductor longus

109

What does the femoral triangle contain?

Femoral nerve
Femoral artery
Femoral vein
Femoral canal

110

What is found in the femoral canal?

Lymphatics

111

What surrounds the femoral artery, vein and canal?

Femoral sheath

112

Where does the femoral nerve lie?

Lateral outside of the femoral sheath

113

Give the walls of the canal the femoral vessels pass through

Roof - sartorius
Lateral wall - Vastus medius
Floor - adductor longus

114

How do the vessels in the thigh gain access to the posterior compartment of the thigh?

Pass through the adductor hiatus