Principles of fracture management Flashcards Preview

Module 204 Theme 2 > Principles of fracture management > Flashcards

Flashcards in Principles of fracture management Deck (25):
1

List some complications of surgery

Loss of Life
Loss of Limb
Loss of function
General/Systemic - CVS,RS,GIT,GUS,NS
Specific/Local - Infection, Dislocation, Neurovascular damage, Fracture, Metalwork failure, Operation specific

2

Which mnemonic is used for an acute surgical handover?

Age
Time
Mechanism
Injuries (top to toe)
Signs
Treatment

3

What is the ATLS approach?

ABCDE

4

Describe the management of airway

With cervical spine control - brace, hands
Give oxygen

5

Describe the management of breathing

Breathing and ventilation
Oxygen stats
Respiratory rate
Vomit, drugs and alcohol may interfere with breathing

6

What is ATOM FC

Airway obstruction
Tension
Open pneumothorax
Massive pneumothorax
Flail chest
Cardiac taponarde

7

Describe the management of circulation

With hemorrhage control

8

Give the physiology of shock

Tachycardia
Decreased pulse pressure
Altered conscious level
Decreased urine output
Reduced BP (late)

9

Where can you bleed from and die quickly?

Limbs
Abdomen
Chest

10

Describe the multidisciplinary approach to surgery

Multidisciplinary care vital
Anaesthetists, Orthopaedics, General Surgery, Cardiothoracic Surgery, Neurosurgery etc etc
Communication essential

11

What contributes to loss of limb

Vessels
Nerves
Bones
Soft tissues/muscles

12

Describe some vascular problems

Direct arterial injury
Occlusion of venous outflow

13

How do you treat compartment syndrome?

Fasciotomy

14

How can bony injuries cause limb loss?

Direct or indirect

15

Describe AMPLE

Allergies
Medications
Past Medical Hx
Last meal
Environment/Event (incl Temp)

16

Give the red flags of fracture history

Red Flags
Vessels
Nerves
Soft tissues
Viability
Compartment
Children

17

Describe fracture examination

Start at the top, remember ATLS
Listen to the patient
Remember your anatomy
LOOK
FEEL (carefully)
MOVE (carefully)
SPECIAL TESTS (nerves and vessels)

18

Describe the management of fracture

Relieve pain
- Analgesia
- Splint the bone
Avoid further damage
- Reduce dislocations
- Straighten bent limbs
- Re-establish circulation
- Relieve pressure on nerves close by
- Open Fractures

19

How do you describe xrays

Which bone
Where in the bone
Intra-articular
Epiphysis
Physis
Metaphysis
Diaphysis
What sort of bone
Normal, Pathological

20

Describe fractures

Simple
Transverse, oblique, spiral
Comminuted
How many parts?
Displaced
Angulated, translated, burst
Special Types
Greenstick, avulsions

21

List the basic steps to fracture management

Reduce

Stabilise

Rehabilitate

22

How do you reduce the fracture

closed vs open
Correct
Length
Alignment
Rotation

23

How do you stabilize the fracture?

External – sling, POP, external fixator
Internal – wires
intramedullary (nail)
extramedullary (plates)
Further Options
Nothing – ie mobilise
Replacement

24

Describe polytrauma care

Damage Control
Vs
Early Total Care

Physiological parameters
Acidosis (Lactate<2)
Hypothermia
Coagulopathy
= terrible triad of trauma

25

List non union causes

Non-union - Causes

Biological
hypovascular

Mechanical
poor frx stability