Flashcards in Morphological plan of upper limb Deck (83):
Describe the locomotion of man
Bipedal - free upper limb
Describe the anatomical evolution of man
Changes to the foot, hip, knee, vertebral column, skull
What caused the upper limb to evolve?
Mechanical interaction with the environment
Describe the locomotion of most mammals
Quadrapedal - climbing and crawling
How many bones are in the upper limb?
How many muscles are in the upper limb?
Give the name of the main nerve supply in the upper limb
Describe the basic arrangement of the upper limb starting with course muscle groups and ending in fine muscle groups
How many carpal bones are there?
How many metacarpals are there?
How many phalanges are there?
What is the head of the humerus divided into?
Greater and lesser tubercle
What is the end of the humerus divided into?
Lateral and medial epicondyle
What separates the two tubercles of the humerus?
Intertubercular sulcus/bicipital groove
Name the tuberosity on the humerus
Name the parts of the radius
Name the parts of the ulna
Styloid process of ulna
Name the structure which lies between the radius and ulna
Describe the arrangement of the wrist
2 rows of carpal bones (proximal and distal)
List the limb movements
List some joints in the upper limb
What joint forms the opposable thumb?
Name the anterior functional compartments
Name the posterior functional compartments
Describe the attachment of the upper limb to the trunk
From thoracic wall
Superficial back muscles from vertebral column
Name 3 muscles found at the shoulder joint
Rotator cuff muscles
Name the anterior flexor muscles of the upper arm
Name the posterior extensor muscles of the upper arm
What group of muscles are found in the anterior forearm?
Flexors of wrists and digits
What group of muscles are found in the posterior forearm?
Extensors of wrists and digits
Name the two main muscles in the hand
Thenar muscles (thumb)
Hypothenar muscles (little finger)
List the movements of the vertebral column
Name the 4 curvatures of the vertebral column
What is the function of the curvatures of the vertebral column?
Name the primary (fetal) curvatures
Name the secondary (childhood) curvatures
Give the name of primary curvature pathology
Give the name of secondary curvature pathology
What is the function of the ligaments in the vertebral column?
Reinforce and stabilize joints
Limit range of movement
Name the ligament of the vertebral column found anterior to body
Anterior longitudinal ligament
What is the function of the anterior longitudinal ligament?
Name the ligaments of the vertebral column found posterior to the body
Posterior longitudinal ligament
What is the function of the posterior vertebral ligaments?
What is the clinical significance of the anterior longitudinal ligament?
Injury to ligament following whiplash
What is the function of the intervertebral joints?
For weight bearing and strength
What is the function of intervertebral discs?
What happens to disc thickness down the vertebral column?
Describe the structure of an intervertebral disc
Nucleus pulposus (core-semifluid)
Annulus fibrosus (outer-strong)
What is the clinical significance of the intervertebral disc?
Disc protrusion/NP herniation can impinge on nerves
What are facet joints?
Joints between vertebral arches
What type of joint are facet joints?
What does movement depend on?
Describe the movement of cervical facet joint
Describe the movement of thoracic facet joint
Describe the movement of lumbar facet joint
What is the clinical implication of facet joints?
Degeneration of facet joints can cause back pain
What groups are the muscles of the back divided into?
What do the extrinsic back muscles do?
Move upper limbs/ribs
What do the intrinsic back muscles do?
Name the intrinsic back muscles
Name the extrinsic back muscles
Superficial and intermediate
What are extrinsic and intrinsic back muscles separated by?
What do the superficial muscles do?
Attach upper limb to the trunk
Name 2 superficial back muscles
What is the function of trapezius muscle
What is the function of latissimus dorsi?
Adducts/extends/medially rotates the arm
Name the 2 superficial back muscles found behind trapezius
Rhomboids (major and minor)
What is the function of levator scapulae?
What is the function of rhomboids?
Name the 3 layers of the deep muscles
Where is splenius located?
Most superficial in the neck
Which of the layers of the deep muscles is the main layer?
Where is multifidus located?
Name the 3 muscle blocks which make up erector spinae
Where is erector spinae located?
Within groove between the spinous processes and angles of the ribs
Where is the origin of the erector spinae?
Erector spinae aponeurosis
Where do the spinales insert?
To spinous process
Where does longissimus insert?
To transverse process
Where does iliocostalis insert?
What is the function of erector spinae muscles?
Extend/laterally flex/rotate vertebral column
What is the function of multifidus?
Extend/rotate/stabilize vertebral column
What innervates the extrinsic muscles?
Anterior primary ramus (mainly cervical rami)