Morphological plan of upper limb Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Morphological plan of upper limb Deck (83):
1

Describe the locomotion of man

Bipedal - free upper limb

2

Describe the anatomical evolution of man

Changes to the foot, hip, knee, vertebral column, skull

Longer clavicles

Pronation/supination

Opposable thumb

3

What caused the upper limb to evolve?

Mechanical interaction with the environment

4

Describe the locomotion of most mammals

Quadrapedal - climbing and crawling

5

How many bones are in the upper limb?

32

6

How many muscles are in the upper limb?

57

7

Give the name of the main nerve supply in the upper limb

Brachial plexus

8

Describe the basic arrangement of the upper limb starting with course muscle groups and ending in fine muscle groups

Shoulder
Arm
Elbow
Forearm
Wrist
Hand

9

How many carpal bones are there?

8

10

How many metacarpals are there?

5

11

How many phalanges are there?

14

12

What is the head of the humerus divided into?

Greater and lesser tubercle

13

What is the end of the humerus divided into?

Lateral and medial epicondyle

14

What separates the two tubercles of the humerus?

Intertubercular sulcus/bicipital groove

15

Name the tuberosity on the humerus

Deltoid tuberosity

16

Name the parts of the radius

Head
Radial tuberosity
Styloid process

17

Name the parts of the ulna

Olecranon
Ulna tuberosity
Styloid process of ulna

18

Name the structure which lies between the radius and ulna

Interosseous membrane

19

Describe the arrangement of the wrist

2 rows of carpal bones (proximal and distal)

20

List the limb movements

Flexion/extension

Abduction/Adduction

Lateral/Medial rotation

Pronation/Supination

Circumduction

Opposition

21

List some joints in the upper limb

Glenohumeral

Elbow

Wrist (radiocarpal)

Midcarpal

Carpometacarpal

Metacarpophalangeal

Interphalangeal

22

What joint forms the opposable thumb?

Saddle joint

23

Name the anterior functional compartments

Flexor compartments

24

Name the posterior functional compartments

Extensor compartments

25

Describe the attachment of the upper limb to the trunk

From thoracic wall

Superficial back muscles from vertebral column

26

Name 3 muscles found at the shoulder joint

Deltoid
Rotator cuff muscles
Teres major

27

Name the anterior flexor muscles of the upper arm

Coracobrachialis

Biceps brachii

Brachialis

28

Name the posterior extensor muscles of the upper arm

Triceps brachii

29

What group of muscles are found in the anterior forearm?

Flexors of wrists and digits

30

What group of muscles are found in the posterior forearm?

Extensors of wrists and digits

31

Name the two main muscles in the hand

Thenar muscles (thumb)

Hypothenar muscles (little finger)

32

List the movements of the vertebral column

Flexion/extension

Lateral flexion/extension

Rotation

33

Name the 4 curvatures of the vertebral column

Cervical
Thoracic
Lumbar
Sacral

34

What is the function of the curvatures of the vertebral column?

Bipedalism
Shock absorption
Flexibility

35

Name the primary (fetal) curvatures

Thoracic
Sacral

36

Name the secondary (childhood) curvatures

Cervical
Lumbar

37

Give the name of primary curvature pathology

Kyphoses

38

Give the name of secondary curvature pathology

Lordoses

39

What is the function of the ligaments in the vertebral column?

Reinforce and stabilize joints
Limit range of movement

40

Name the ligament of the vertebral column found anterior to body

Anterior longitudinal ligament

41

What is the function of the anterior longitudinal ligament?

Resists hyperextension

42

Name the ligaments of the vertebral column found posterior to the body

Posterior longitudinal ligament
Ligamentum flava

43

What is the function of the posterior vertebral ligaments?

Resists hyperflexion

44

What is the clinical significance of the anterior longitudinal ligament?

Injury to ligament following whiplash

45

What is the function of the intervertebral joints?

For weight bearing and strength

46

What is the function of intervertebral discs?

Shock absorbers

47

What happens to disc thickness down the vertebral column?

Increases

48

Describe the structure of an intervertebral disc

Nucleus pulposus (core-semifluid)
Annulus fibrosus (outer-strong)

49

What is the clinical significance of the intervertebral disc?

Disc protrusion/NP herniation can impinge on nerves

50

What are facet joints?

Joints between vertebral arches

51

What type of joint are facet joints?

Synovial

52

What does movement depend on?

Joint angle

53

Describe the movement of cervical facet joint

Flexion/eating/rotation

54

Describe the movement of thoracic facet joint

Rotation

55

Describe the movement of lumbar facet joint

Flexion/extension

56

What is the clinical implication of facet joints?

Degeneration of facet joints can cause back pain

57

What groups are the muscles of the back divided into?

Extrinsic

Intrinsic

58

What do the extrinsic back muscles do?

Move upper limbs/ribs

59

What do the intrinsic back muscles do?

Postural/vertebral column

60

Name the intrinsic back muscles

Deep

61

Name the extrinsic back muscles

Superficial and intermediate

62

What are extrinsic and intrinsic back muscles separated by?

Thoracolumbar fascia

63

What do the superficial muscles do?

Attach upper limb to the trunk

64

Name 2 superficial back muscles

Trapezius

Latissimus dorsi

65

What is the function of trapezius muscle

Rotates scapula

66

What is the function of latissimus dorsi?

Adducts/extends/medially rotates the arm

67

Name the 2 superficial back muscles found behind trapezius

Levator scapulae

Rhomboids (major and minor)

68

What is the function of levator scapulae?

Elevates scapula

69

What is the function of rhomboids?

Retracts scapula

70

Name the 3 layers of the deep muscles

Splenius

Erector spinae

Multifidus

71

Where is splenius located?

Most superficial in the neck

72

Which of the layers of the deep muscles is the main layer?

Erector spinae

73

Where is multifidus located?

Very deep

74

Name the 3 muscle blocks which make up erector spinae

Spinales

Longissimus

Iliocostalis

75

Where is erector spinae located?

Within groove between the spinous processes and angles of the ribs

76

Where is the origin of the erector spinae?

Erector spinae aponeurosis

77

Where do the spinales insert?

To spinous process

78

Where does longissimus insert?

To transverse process

79

Where does iliocostalis insert?

To ribs

80

What is the function of erector spinae muscles?

Extend/laterally flex/rotate vertebral column

81

What is the function of multifidus?

Extend/rotate/stabilize vertebral column

82

What innervates the extrinsic muscles?

Anterior primary ramus (mainly cervical rami)

83

What innervates the intrinsic muscles?

Posterior primary ramus