Back and shoulder dissection Flashcards Preview

Module 204 Theme 2 > Back and shoulder dissection > Flashcards

Flashcards in Back and shoulder dissection Deck (87):
1

Name the superficial muscles of the back

Levator scapulae
Rhomboids (major and minor)
Latissimus dorsi
Trapezius

2

What do the superficial trunk muscles attach?

The pectoral girdle to the trunk

3

Give the origin of the upper fibres of trapezius

External occipital protuberance of skull
Spinous processes of cervical vertebrae

4

Give the insertion of the upper fibres of trapezius

Clavicle
Acromion
Spine of scapula

5

Give the origin of the medial fibres of trapezius

Spinous processes of upper thoracic vertebrae

6

Give the insertion of the medial fibres of trapezius

Spine of the scapula

7

Give the origin of the lower fibres of the scapula

Spinous processes of the lower thoracic vertebrae

8

Give the insertion of the lower fibres of the scapula

Spine of scapula

9

What muscles lie below trapezius?

Major and minor rhomboids

10

Give the origin of the rhomboids

Spinous processes C7 to T5

11

Give the insertion of the rhomboids

Medial border of the scapular

12

Where is latissimus dorsi found?

Large flat muscle in thoracic region of the back

13

Give the origin of latissimus dorsi

Thoracolumbar fascia

14

Give the insertion of latissimus dorsi

Intertubercular sulcus/bicipital groove of the humerus

15

Describe the travel of latissimus dorsi

Muscle fibres travel upwards round the inferior angle of scapula to the intertubercular sulcus

16

Give the origin of serratus anterior

Upper 8 ribs

17

Describe the travel of serratus anterior

Between the scapula and ribs

18

Give the insertion of serratus anterior

Medial border of scapula

19

Name the intermediate back muscles

Serratus posterior superior
Serratus posterior inferior

20

What is the function of serratus posterior inferior and superior?

Accessory respiratory muscles that help to expand the chest cavity during inspiration

21

Where are the deep intrinsic muscles of the back found?

In the groove between the spinous processes of the vertebrae and the angle of the ribs

22

What is the largest group of the deep intrinsic back muscles?

Erector spinae

23

What does erector spinae incorporate?

Spinales
Longissimus
Iliocostalis

24

Give the origin of the erector spinae muscles

Erector spinae aponeurosis

25

What is the Erector spinae aponeurosis?

Broad thick tendon at base of the back

26

Which muscle is the spinales muscle?

Most medial

27

Give the insertion of the spinales muscle

Thoracic spinous processes and skull

28

Which muscle is the longissimus muscle?

Intermediate

29

Give the insertion of longissimus

Thoracic and cervical spinous processes

30

Which muscle is iliocostalis?

Most lateral

31

Give the insertion of iliocostalis

Ribs

32

Where is the multifidus muscle found?

Under erector spinae

33

Give the origin of multifidus

Transverse processes

34

Give the insertion of multifidus

Spinous processes

35

What is multifidus?

Major stabiliser of the back
Extends vertebral column

36

What makes up the pectoral girdle?

Clavicle
Scapula

37

Where do the clavicle and scapula articulate?

Acromioclavicular joint

38

Where does the pectoral gridle articulate with the trunk?

Sternoclavicular joint

39

Describe the glenohumeral joint

Shallow articulation between the head of the humerus and the glenoid fossa of the scapula
Synovial ball and socket joint

40

Describe the roof of the small space the tendon of supraspinatus passes

Coracoacromial ligament

41

What can cause injury to supraspinatus?

Overhead activity eg throwing can cause impingement of this tendon

42

What forms the quadrangular space?

teres minor
teres major
the shaft of the humerus
long head of triceps brachii

43

What forms the axilla?

apex, base and four walls

44

Where is the axillary fossa found?

Base of the axilla

45

What makes up the axillary fossa?

Skin and subcutaneous tissue

46

What is the apex (inlet) of the axillary fossa formed of?

Clavicle (anteriorly)
1st rib (medially)
Superior border of scapula (posteriorly)

47

What is the anterior wall of the axilla?

Pectoralis minor and major

48

What is the posterior wall of the axilla formed from?

teres major, latissimus dorsi and subscapularis
muscles

49

What is the medial wall of the axilla?

serratus anterior muscle.

50

What nerve supplies serratus anterior?

Long thoracic nerve from C5,C6,C7 of brachial plexus

51

What is the axilla bordered by laterally?

Humerus

52

What does the axilla contain?

axillary artery
and its branches, the axillary vein and its tributaries, lymph vessels and nodes, and the
brachial plexus.

53

What is the axillary artery?

Continuation of the subclavian artery

54

Where does the subclavian artery pass?

Through scalene triangle

55

What forms the scalene triangle?

anterior and middle scalene muscles and the first rib.

56

Where does the axillary artery become the brachial artery?

Lower border of teres major

57

Where do the anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries travel?

Wind around the surgical neck of humerus

58

What does the subscapular artery contribute to?

Anastomosis of the shoulder region

59

Describe the axillary vein

Drains basilic vein into subclavian vein

60

Where does the axillary vein terminate as the subclavian vein?

1st rib

61

Where is the basilic vein located?

Medial side of the arm

62

Where is the cephalic vein located?

Deltopectoral groove

63

What does the cephalic vein join

Axillary vein

64

Where are the trunks of the brachial plexus located?

Pass through the scalene triangle with the subclavian artery

65

What do the trunks of the brachial plexus divide to form?

Anterior and posterior divisions

66

Which muscle overlies cords?

Pectoralis minor

67

What are the cords named relative to?

Axillary artery

68

Name the terminal branches of the brachial plexus

Musculocutaneous
Ulnar
Median
Radial
Axillary

69

Name the four rotator cuff muscles

Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres minor
Subscapularis

70

Give the origin of supraspinatus

Supraspinous fossa

71

Give the insertion of supraspinatus

Anterior facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus

72

Give the origin of infraspinatus

Infraspinous fossa

73

Give the insertion of infraspinatus

Middle facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus

74

Give the origin of teres minor

Dorsal aspect of the lateral border of the scapula

75

Give the insertion of teres minor

Lowest facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus

76

Give the origin of teres major

Inferior angle of scapula

77

Give the insertion of teres major

Medial lip of the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus

78

Give the insertion of deltoid muscle

Deltoid tuberosity of the humerus

79

Give the origin of the deltoid muscle

Lateral third of the clavicle
Acromion
Spine of the scapula

80

Which muscle gives the shoulder its round shape?

Deltoid

81

What surrounds the glenohumeral joint?

Fibrous joint capsule

82

Where is the fibrous joint capsule attached?

Rim of the glenoid fossa
Anatomical neck of the humerus

83

What is the fibrous joint capsule strengthened by?

Attachments of rotator cuff muscles

84

Where do the attachments of rotator cuff muscles surround the joint?

On all sides except inferiorly

85

Which ligaments helps to stabilize the glenohumeral joint?

Coracoacromial ligament
Glenohumeral ligaments

86

Where do the glenohumeral joints stabilise?

Anteriorly

87

What deepens the glenoid fossa?

Glenoid labrum - ring of fibrocartilage