Anatomy of the shoulder region Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy of the shoulder region Deck (71):
1

What comprises the pectoral girdle?

Clavicle

Scapula

2

Name the two joints in the shoulder region

Glenohumeral

Acromioclavicular

3

What is the function of ligaments in the shoulder region?

Stabilize/support the shoulder region
Very strong

4

Name some ligaments found in the shoulder region

Coracoclavicular
Acromioclavicular
Coracoacromial
Glenohumeral - superior, middle and inferior

5

Where are the attachments of the ligaments of the shoulder found?

In the name of the ligament

6

Describe coracoclavicular ligament

2 parts
Major stabilizing ligament

7

Describe coracoacromial ligament

Forms arch
Provides support for head of the humerus
Prevents superior dislocation

8

What type of joint is the glenohumeral joint?

Ball and socket joint

9

Describe the mobility of the glenohumeral joint

Highly mobile

10

List the movements carried out by the glenohumeral joint

Abduction/adduction
Flexion/extension
Lateral/medial rotation
Circumduction

11

Which muscles allows abduction of the arm?

Deltoid
Trapezius
Serratus anterior

12

Give the origin of the deltoid

Spine of scapula, acromion and clavicle

13

Give the insertion of the deltoid

Deltoid tuberosity

14

Which nerve supplies the deltoid?

Axillary

15

What do the posterior fibres of the deltoid do?

Extension and lateral rotation

16

What do the anterior fibres of the deltoid do?

Flexion and medial rotation

17

Which muscles allow adduction of the arm?

Pectoralis major
Latissimus dorsi
Levator scapulae
Rhomboids

18

What does brachialis do?

Flexes forearm

19

Which muscles flex the arm?

Anterior fibres of deltoid
Coracobrachialis
Long and short head of biceps

20

Which muscles extend the arm?

Posterior fibres of deltoid
Long head of triceps

21

Which muscles extend the forearm?

Lateral head of triceps
Medial head of triceps

22

Describe the stability of the glenohumeral joint

Unstable structure - common site of dislocation

23

What type of dislocation of the glenohumeral joint is the most common?

Anterior dislocation

24

Describe an anterior dislocation of the glenohumeral joint

Humeral head descends inferiorly and ends up anterior

25

List 5 factors increasing stability in the shoulder region

Coracoacromial arch
Glenohumeral ligaments
Deepening of glenoid fossa by glenoid labrum
Long heads of bicep (above) and triceps (below)
Tendons of rotator cuff muscles

26

What is the function of the coracoacromial arch?

Prevents superior dislocation

27

What is the function of the glenohumeral ligaments?

Supports anterior of joint

28

How many glenohumeral ligaments are there?

3 - superior, middle and inferior

29

What is the function of the glenoid labrum?

Deepens the glenoid fossa

30

What is the origin of the long head of biceps

Supraglenoid tubercle

31

Where does the long head of biceps pass?

Through jo capsule

32

What is the origin of the long head of triceps?

Infraglenoid tubercle

33

What are the rotator cuff muscles?

4 muscles

34

Where do the tendons of the rotator cuff muscles insert?

On humerus close to the joint

35

Describe the tendons of the rotator cuff muscles

Fuse with the joint capsule
Form cuff around the joint

36

Describe the location of the rotator cuff muscles

Surrounds joint on all sides except inferiorly

37

Name the 4 rotator cuff muscles

Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres minor
Subscapularis

38

Which rotator cuff muscles insert into the greater tubercle of the humerus?

Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres minor

39

Give the insertion of subscapularis muscle

Lesser tubercle of the humerus

40

Give the origin of subscapularis

Subscapular fossa

41

Give the origin of supraspinatus

Supraspinous fossa

42

Give the origin of infraspinatus

Infraspinous fossa

43

Give the origin of teres minor

Lateral border of scapula

44

What is the overall function of the rotator cuff muscles?

Stabilise humeral head on glenoid fossa

45

Give the function of supraspinatus

Initiate abduction

46

Give the function of infraspinatus

Lateral rotation

47

Give the function of teres minor

Lateral rotation

48

Give the function of subscapularis

Medial rotation

49

Which other muscle should be considered with the rotator cuff muscles?

Teres major

50

What is the function of teres major?

Medial rotation
Stabilises the humerus during abduction - eccentric contraction

51

Give the origin of teres major

Inferior angle of scapula

52

Give the insertion of teres major

Medial lip of bicipital groove

53

Which rotator cuff muscle is the most commonly injured?

Supraspinatus

54

Why is supraspinatus most commonly injured?

Limited space for tendon under coracoacromial arch

55

What is supraspinatus impingement?

Impingement due to repetitive overhead activities

Common in athletes (throwers)

56

Give the name of the blood supply to the shoulder

Scapula anastomosis

57

What is the function of the scapular anastomosis

Allows rich continuous supply of blood to the shoulder region during movement

58

Where does the scapular anasomiss come from?

From subclavian and axillary arteries

59

Describe the components of the scapular anastomosis

Suprascapular
Subscapular
Dorsal scapular

60

Where is the nerve supply to the shoulder from?

Brachial plexus
- posterior cord
- suprascapular nerve from superior trunk

61

Where are the cords of the brachial plexus?

Within axilla
Below pectoralis minor

62

What does the axillary nerve supply?

Deltoid and teres minor
Sensory to badge area

63

What does the radial nerve supply?

Triceps brachii

64

What do the upper and lower subscapular nerves supply?

Subscapularis
Teres major

65

What does the thoracodorsal nerve supply?

Latissimus dorsi

66

What is the clinical significance of fracture to surgical neck of humerus?

Can damage nerves and vessels in the quadrangular space

67

List the borders of the quadrangular space

Teres minor
Humerus
Teres major
Long head of triceps

68

What does the musculocutaneous nerve supply?

Arm flexors

69

What does lateral pectoral nerve supply?

Pectoralis major

70

What does the medial pectoral nerve supply?

Pectoralis minor/major

71

What is the function of the medial cord?

Gives off medial cutaneous nerves to arm and forearm