Morphological plan of the lower limb Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Morphological plan of the lower limb Deck (86):
1

Describe the function of the lower limb in bipedal organisms

Locomotion
Weight bearing
Stresses

2

Describe the movement of the lower limb during development

Medial rotation

3

Where are the extensors in the lower limb?

Anterior

4

Where are the flexors in the lower limb?

Posterior

5

What is the importance of the flexors and extensors?

Good propulsion

6

What happens to the lower limb in weeks 6-8 of development?

Brings the posterior compartment anterior

7

Describe the skeleton in the lower limb

Pelvis
Femur
Fibia and tibia
Tarsal bones (x7)
Metatarsals (x5)
Phalanges (x14)

8

Name some important landmarks on the pelvis

Anterior superior iliac spine
Anterior inferior iliac spine
Pubis
Ischiopubic ramus
Obturator foramen
Ischial tuberosity
Greater sciatic foramen
Greater sciatic notch
Acetabulum

9

Name some ligaments on the pelvis

Sacrotuberous ligament
Sacrospinous ligament

10

List the landmarks on the anterior of the femur

Head
Neck
Intertrochanteric line
Adductor tubercle
Medial epicondyle
Lateral epicondyle

11

List the landmarks on the posterior of the femur

Greater trochanter
Intertrochanteric crest
Lesser trochanter
Gluteal tuberosity
Linea aspera
Lateral and medial condyles

12

List the landmarks on the fibula

Lateral condyle
Lateral malleolus

13

List the landmarks on the tibia

Medial condyle
Tibial tuberosity
Medial malleolus

14

List the bones in the foot

Tarsals
Metatarsals
Phalanges

15

List the limb movements in the lower limb

Flexion/extension
Abduction/adduction
Lateral/medial rotation
Pronation/supination
Circumduction

16

What movement isnt present in the lower limb?

Opposition

17

Name the joints in the lower limb

Hip joint
Ankle joint
Knee joint
Joints of the foot

18

What movements does the ankle joint facilitate?

Dorsiflexion (or extension)
Plantarflexion (or extension)

19

What movements do the joints of the foot facilitate?

Eversion, inversion
Supination, pronation
Extension, flexion

20

List the functional compartments of the lower limb

Gluteal
Thigh
Leg
Foot

21

Name the 3 major gluteal muscles

Gluteus maximus
Gluteus medius
Gluteus minimus

22

What movement does gluteus maximus facilitate?

Extensor + lateral rotator

23

What movements does gluteus medius do?

Abductor + medial rotator

24

What movements does gluteus minimus facilitate?

Abductor + medial rotator

25

What does gluteus maximus also support and how?

Extended knee via the iliotibial tract

26

What are the gluteal muscles important for?

Locomotion

27

Give the origin of gluteus maximus

Ilium

28

Give the insertion of gluteus maximus

Gluteal tuberosity
Iliotibial tract

29

Which nerve supplies gluteus maximus?

Inferior gluteal nerve

30

Where do gluteus medius and minimus originate?

Ileum

31

Where do gluteus medius and minimus insert?

Greater trochanter of the femur

32

What are gluteus medius and minimis innervated by?

Superior gluteal nerve

33

What are the small muscles of the gluteal region equivalent to?

Rotator cuff

34

What is the function of the small muscles of the gluteal region?

Stabilize the hip
Lateral rotation of the extended thigh

35

Where do the small muscles of the gluteal region originate?

Sacrum (piriformis) and ischium/ischipubic ramus

36

Where do the small muscles of the gluteal region insert?

Greater trochanter of the femur

37

What are the small muscles of the gluteal region innervated by?

Sacral plexus

38

List the muscles found in the anterior compartment of the thigh

Quadriceps
Rectus femoris
Vastus lateralis
Vastus medialis
Vastus intermedius
Sartorius

39

Where do the muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh originate?

Anterior inferior iliac spine and femur

40

Where do the muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh insert?

Tibial tuberosity

41

What are the muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh innervated by?

Femoral nerve

42

Where does sartorius originate?

Anterior superior iliac spine

43

Where does sartorius insert?

Tibia

44

What muscles are found in the posterior compartment of the thigh?

Hamstrings
Biceps femoris
Semimembranosus
Semitendinosus

45

Where do muscles in the posterior compartment of the thigh originate?

Ischial tuberosity

46

Where do muscles in the posterior compartment of the thigh insert?

Tibia or fibula

47

What are the muscles in the posterior compartment of the thigh innervated by?

Sciatic nerve

48

What movements do the muscles in the posterior compartment of the thigh facilitate?

Flex knee
Extend hip
Medial rotation
Lateral rotation

49

List the muscles in the medial compartment of the thigh

Pectineus
Adductor longus
Adductor brevis
Adductor magnus
Gracilis

50

Where do muscles in the medial compartment of the thigh originate?

Pubis and ischium

51

Where do muscles in the medial compartment of the thigh insert?

Linea aspera

52

Which nerve innervates the muscles in the medial compartment of the thigh except pectineus and hamstring part of adductor magnus?

Obturator nerve

53

What two parts form adductor magnus?

Adductor part
Hamstring part

54

Give the origin and insertion of the adductor part of adductor magnus

Ischiopubic ramus to linea aspera

55

Give the origin and insertion of the hamstring part of adductor magnus

Ischium to adductor tubercle

56

What movements does the medial compartment of the thigh facilitate?

Adduction
Medial rotation
Extension

57

Which muscles facilitate flexion of the thigh?

Rectus femoris
Sartorius
Iliopsoas (iliacus and psoas major)

58

Which muscles facilitate abduction of the thigh?

Gluteus medius
Gluteus minimus

59

Which muscles facilitate extension of the thigh?

Gluteus maximus
Hamstrings
Hamstrings part of adductor magnus

60

Which muscles facilitate adduction of the thigh?

adductor longus
Adductor brevis
Adductor part of adductor magnus
Pectineus
Gracilis

61

Which muscles facilitate medial and lateral rotation of the thigh?

Gluteal muscles
Hamstrings
Adductors
Short rotators

62

What nerve roots form the lumbar plexus?

Anterior rami of L1 to L4

63

What nerve roots form the sacral plexus?

Anterior rami of L4 and L5 via lumbosacral trunk
Anterior rami of S1 to S4

64

Which nerve roots form the femoral nerve?

L2-L4

65

Which nerve roots form the sciatic nerve?

L4-S3

66

Which nerve roots form the obturator nerve?

L2-L4

67

Where does the femoral nerve originate?

From lumbar plexus

68

What does the femoral nerve do?

Motor - Anterior compartment of the thigh
Sensory - skin over anterior thigh, knee, medial side of leg and foot

69

Where does the obturator nerve come from?

Lumbar plexus

70

What does the obturator nerve do?

Motor - Medial compartment of the thigh (except hamstring part of adductor magnus and pectineus)
Sensory - Skin over medial thigh

71

Where does the sciatic nerve come from?

Sacral plexus

72

What does the sacral nerve do?

Motor: Posterior compartment of thigh, and leg and foot
(+hamstring part of adductor magnus)

Sensory: Skin over leg and foot (except medial side)

73

Describe the blood supply of the lower limb

External iliac artery crosses inguinal ligament to become the femoral artery which gives off a profunda femoris artery to the posterior thigh. The femoral artery continues as the popliteal artery which divides into anterior and posterior tibial arteries.

74

What passes through the femoral triangle?

Femoral artery
Femoral vein
Lymphatics

75

Where do the lymphatics pass?

Femoral canal

76

What surrounds the femoral artery and vein?

Femoral sheath

77

What is the femoral triangle bordered by?

Inguinal ligament
Sartorius
Adductor longus

78

What is the clinical significance of the femoral triangle?

Femoral hernia
Angioplasty
Femoral nerve block
Venepuncture

79

Which muscle overlies the femoral artery?

Adductor magnus

80

Describe the venous drainage of the lower limb

Deep veins follow arteries

Two major superficial veins:

- Great or long saphenous vein

- Small or short saphenous vein

- Drain dorsal venous arch of foot

81

What is the clinical significance of the veins in the legs?

Varicose veins - damage to the valves in perforating veins leads to pooling of blood in superficial veins - varicosities

82

Describe the great saphenous vein

Longest vein in body

Drains medial side of arch

Medial side of limb

Drains into femoral vein in femoral triangle

83

Describe the short saphenous vein

Drains lateral side of arch

Pierces deep politeal fascia

Drains into popliteal vein

84

Name the two lymph nodes in the leg

Superficial inguinal nodes

Deep inguinal nodes

85

What do the superficial inguinal nodes drain?

Drain skin and superficial fascia of lower limb

86

What do the deep inguinal nodes drain?

Beside femoral vein