Anesthetics Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Pharmacology 2016 > Anesthetics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anesthetics Deck (61):
1

Sedative

Induces a state characterized by CNS depression and drowsiness, decreased awareness of surroundings

2

Hypnotic

Induces sleep

3

Narcotic

Induces stupor bordering on general anesthesia

4

Excitatory neurotransmitter

Glutamate (NMDA receptor) and acetylcholine

5

Inhibitory neurotransmitter

GABA and glycine (spinal cord)

6

What is the Anesthetic protocol?

Premedication, induction, maintenance, and recovery

7

Neuromuscular blockers

Patient cannot move but it still fully conscious, NO ANALGESIA

8

Neuromuscular blockers

Succinylcholine
Atracurium

9

Depolarizing (Noncompetitive) Neuromuscular blocker

Succinylcholine

10

Succinylcholine - receptors and use?

Activates nicotinic Ach receptors causing flaccid muscle paralysis

AVOID IN PATIENTS WITH MYASTHENIA GRAVIS!!!

11

Nondepolarizing (competitive) neuromuscular blocker

Atricurium

12

Atricurium - receptors and use?

Competitive antagonist with acetylcholine at nicotinic receptors - causes muscle paralysis

13

Central Muscle relaxants

Guaifenesin:
Glyceryl guaiacolate (GG)
Guaiacol glyceryl ether (GGE)

14

Guaifenisin- receptors and use?

Acts on the nerve impulses in the brain and spinal cord for centrally mediated generalized muscle relaxant - used for muscle relaxant during anesthesia in equine/bovine/swine

15

Guaifenisin- cautions?

Thrombophlebitis in cattle!
More sensitive than horses

16

Methocarbamol - receptors and use?

Related to guaifenesin - used for acute inflammatory and traumatic conditions in the skeletal muscles and reduce muscle spasms from intervertebral disk disease, poisoning with strychnine, metaldehyde, tetanus, or permethrin

17

Methocarbamol- cautions?

Dark urine

18

Phenothiazines: Acepromazine - receptors and use?

Block dopamine receptors, histamine, alpha-1, and acetylcholine receptors - used for good sedation, moderate, muscle relaxation, no analgesia

cause hypotension

19

Prochloroperazine & Chlorpromazine- use?

Antiemetic

20

Trimeprazine-use?

Antihistamine

21

Phenothiazine - cautions?

Boxers are sensitive
Penile prolapse in stallions and injury
Rumenal regurgitation in cattle - NOT APPROVED!

22

Benzodiazepines - receptors and use?

Binding site on GABA receptors used for mild sedation, muscle relaxation, NO ANALGESIA, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedation in ruminants, appetite stimulant

23

Diazepam- cautions?

Painful injection IM

24

Benzodiazepines

Diazepam
Midazolam

25

Midazolam - receptors and use?

Same as diazepam

26

Flumazenil - use?

Reversal of benzodiazepines

27

Alpha -2 agonists

Xylazine
Dexmedtomadine
Detomidine
Romifidine
Clo iodine

28

Alpha-2 antagonists

Atipamezole
Yohimbine

29

Alpha-2 agonist - receptors and use?

Affect alpha-2 receptors in the brain and spinal cord is very very good sedation, good muscle relaxation, mild analgesic, mild respiratory depression and emetic (cats)

Use as recovery from anesthesia (horse), muscle relaxation, analgesia, emetic

30

Alpha-2 agonists biphasic phases

Initial phase and central phase

31

Initial phase of alpha-2 agonists

Peripheral vasoconstriction, reflex increase in parasympathetic tone, bradycardia

32

Central phase of alpha-2 agonists

Vasodilation, compensatory rise in heart rate, hypotension

33

Alpha-2 antagonist- receptors and use?

Reversal of alpha-2 agonist effects - reverse the sedation in small animals

34

Opiates

Naturally occurring drugs extracted from opium

35

Narcosis

Stupor bordering on general anesthesia used to be induced with opium - morphine type drugs are called narcotics

36

Neuroleptanalgesia

Combination of sedative with an analgesic which results in synergistic effects greater sedation and analgesia

37

Pharmacological effects of opioids

Not a lot of sedation, not a lot of muscle relaxation, really good analgesia, respiratory depression, antitussive

38

Opioid agonists - receptors and use?

Activation of Gi/o receptors - used for excellent analgesia, antitussive, vomiting, not a lot of sedation, not a lot of muscle relaxation

Analgesic, pre anesthetic, neuroleptanalgesia

39

Mu agonists

Morphine
Hydromorphone
Fentanyl

40

Morphine - receptors and use?

Mu agonist used for epidurals

Not a lot of sedation, not a lot of muscle relaxation, really good analgesia, respiratory depression

41

Hydromorphone- receptors and use?

Mu agonist used IV in place of morphine with less histamine release

Not a lot of sedation, not a lot of muscle relaxation, really good analgesia, respiratory depression

42

Fentanyl - receptors and use?

Mu agonist used the same as morphine suitable for CRI administration

Not a lot of sedation, not a lot of muscle relaxation, really good analgesia, respiratory depression

43

Partial Mu agonist

Buprenoprhine

44

Buprenorphine - receptor and use?

Partial mu agonist for at home analgesia especially in cats

45

Mixed agonist - antagonist

Butorphanol

46

Butorphanol

Synthetic kappa Agonist and mu antagonist - used for analgesic in cats dogs and horses and antitussives in dogs

most commonly used opioid and horses
will reverse negative side effects on mu receptors but still give analgesic effects

47

What is the most commonly used opioid in horses?

Butorphanol

48

Full opioid antagonists - use?

Use to reverse the effects of opioids

49

Full opioid antagonists

Naloxone
Naltrexone
Diprenorphine
Methylnaltrexone

50

Naloxone -receptor and use?

Competitive receptor antagonist- used for reversal of piped induces adverse effects

51

Naltrexone and Diprenorphine - receptor and use?

Opioid antagonist - used to reverse Carfentanil and Etorphine

52

Special opioids

Hydrocodone
Tramadol
Apomorphine
Loperamide

53

Hydrocodone - receptor and use?

Semisynthetic opioid used as an antitussive

54

Apomorphine - use?

GI - emetics

55

Loperamide - use?

Anti diarrheals

56

Injectable anesthetics - receptor and use?

Potentials GABA receptors - Full anesthesia, good muscle relaxation, no analgesia, respiratory depression, hypotension, myotonia on induction, anticonvulsant

57

Injectable anesthetics

Propofol
Propoflo
Propoflo 2B
Alfaxalone

58

Alfaxlone -receptor and use?

Neurosteroid which is an analog of progesterone - causes full anesthesia, good muscle relaxation, no analgesia, myotonia on induction, anticonvulsant

59

Ketamine - receptor and use?

NMDA receptor channel blockade - used for chemical restraint and anesthesia for minor procedures and induction of anesthesia - causes disassociation, no analgesia, sympathetic stimulation and bronchodilation

60

Ketamine - cautions?

Not usually used alone, may cause pain upon injection

61

Tranquilizer

Induces a state of behavioral change wherein anxiety is relived and the patient is relaxed although aware of their surroundings