Ophthalmic Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Pharmacology 2016 > Ophthalmic > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ophthalmic Deck (25):
1

Miosis

Constrict the pupil - contraction of the iris sphincter muscle and ciliary body for lens accommodation for near vision - lifts the iris away from the trabecular meshwork and increases uveoscleral aqueous outflow

2

Miotics

Cause pupil constriction which opens the drainage angle
Pilocarpine
Physostigmine
Demecarium
Echothiopate

3

Pilocarpine- receptors and use?

Direct acting parasympathomimetic that causes miosis - used in the treatment of glaucoma and keratoconjunctivitis sicca and the diagnosis of parasympathomimetic lesions

4

Physostigmine and Demecarium - receptors and use?

Indirect acting parasympathomimetics that increase uveascaleral drainage

5

Echothiopate- receptors and use?

Indirect acting parasympathomimetic- causes a very long duration of miosis

6

Mydriatics - parasympatholytics

Atropine
Tropicamide

7

Atropine - receptors and use?

Direct acting parasympatholytic causes mydriasis and Cycloplegia- used in the reduction of pain associated with corneal or iris disease - can break up synechiae in uveitis

DO NOT use in glaucoma!!

8

Tropicamide- receptors and use?

Direct acting parasympatholytic causes mydriasis and Cycloplegia - used to dilate the pupil for ophthalmic exam and prevent adhesions after cataract surgery

9

Mydriatics- sympathomimetics

Phenylephrine

10

Phenylephrine - receptors and use?

Alpha-1 agonist causes mydriasis through contraction of the iris muscle - used in perioperative cataract surgery and diagnosis and treatment of Horner syndrome

11

Lacromimetic agents - use?

Provide lubrication but do not perfectly replicate natural tears

12

Lacrimogenic agents

Cyclosporine
Tacrolimus

13

Cyclosporine - use?

Treatment of canine Keratoconjunctivitis sicca

14

Tacrolimus- receptors and use?

Decreases T cell activation and works on patients that are not responsive to cyclosporine

15

Brimonidine - receptors and use?

Ophthalmic alpha agonist used in the treatment of glaucoma

16

Timolol- receptors and use?

Ophthalmic non selective beta antagonist used in glaucoma management

17

Dorzolamide - receptors and use?

Reversible inhibition of carbonic anhydrase to decrease aqueous humor production

18

Sulfonamide derivatives- cautions?

Hypersensitivity to sulfa

19

Latanoprost - receptors and use?

Topical prostaglandin agonist increases uveoscleral outflow by simulating prostaglandin receptors - used to topically treat glaucoma and reduce intraocular pressure

20

Glucocorticoids - dexamethasone and prednisone- use in the eye?

Manage inflammatory and immune mediated conditions noninfectious keratitis and uveitis

21

Topical NSAIDs: Flurbiprofen and Diclofenac - use?

Management of uveitis, keratitis, and inflammation associated with cataracts

22

Gancyclovir - use?

Antiviral used to manage feline viral infection and reserved for more severe cases

23

Natamycin- use?

Treatment of fungal keratitis and conjunctivitis

24

Proparacaine- receptors and use?

Topical anesthetic that blocks sodium channels to prevent axonal depolarization used to decrease corneal sensation to allow for diagnostic evaluation

25

Mydriasis

Dilate the pupil - relaxation of the ciliary body and contraction of the iris dilator muscle for lens accommodation for far vision and aqueous humor formation