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RUSVM Pharmacology 2016 > Endocrine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (51):
1

Which hypothyroid drug requires less frequent dosing and has a lower risk of thyrotoxicosis?

Levothyroxine

2

What is the only veterinary approved product for hypothyroidism in dogs?

Thyro-tabs

3

What are the four ways to stop hyperthyroidism in cats?

Stop the uptake of iodine
Stop the production of T3
stop the release of the molecule (T3 or T4)
stop the conversion of T3 to T4

4

Why do you feed canned y/d food to a hyperthyroid cat?

It is iodine deficient to stop the conversion of T3 to T4

5

Methimazole - receptor and uses?

Inhibits thyroid hormone synthesis - used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism and cats

6

What is the extreme idiosyncratic reaction that occurs with methimazole?

Facial excoriation
Hepatopathy
bone marrow suppression

7

Propylthiouracil (PTU)- receptor and uses?

Inhibit thyroid hormone synthesis and inhibit conversion and T3 to T4 in the tissues- used in the control of hyperthyroidism in cats

8

Iodides and Iodinated contrast agents - receptor and uses?

Inhibit thyroid hormone synthesis, and inhibit preformed hormone, and inhibit T3 to T4 conversion in the periphery - hyperthyroid drug with the most side effects not used often!

9

What is used to treat hypoglycemia acutely?

A 5% dextrose solution

10

What is used to treat chronic hypoglycemia?

A diet of frequent small meals for complex carbohydrates

11

Does hyperglycemia require therapy?

No! Address the underlying issue or diabetes mellitus

12

What are the clinical signs of hypocalcemia?

Hyperesthesia, pawing at the face, tremors, flaccid paralysis, seizures, hyperthermia, bradycardia

13

What is Periparturient hypocalcemia?

Also known as milk fever or eclampsia

caused by sudden increase in calcium usage for which the patient cannot adapt rapidly

usually associated with birth or the lactation

14

Parenteral calcium options

Calcium gluconate or calcium chloride

15

Can you administer calcium chloride SQor intramuscular?

No! Very caustic!

16

What calcium products can be given orally?

Calcium carbonate and calcium proprionate

17

What is a requirement for oral calcium administration?

The patient must be able to absorb the calcium from the G.I. tract

18

What is the most potent activated form of vitamin D?

Calcitriol

19

What are the three forms of vitamin D?

Calcitriol
DHT
Ergocalciferol

20

What do you oral hypoglycemia agents cause?

Hypoglycemia

21

Oral hypoglycemia agents- receptors and use?

Stimulate insulin secretion by the pancreatic beta cells and increase tissue sensitivity to insulin - used in the treatment of type II diabetes

22

Glipizide -use?

used in the treatment of hyperglycemia

23

Short acting insulin

Humulin R, Crystalline or Neutral insulin

24

Short acting insulin- use?

Used for hospitalized patients who are not eating

25

Intermediate acting insulin

NPH (isophane)
Lente (Vetsulin/caninsulin)

26

Intermediate acting insulin

Good starting insulin for canines but may not provide adequate control in felines

27

Long acting insulin

Glargine
Protamine Zinc/ PZI (Prozinc)
Detemir

28

Prozinc - use?

Insulin used in cats

29

Detemir- use?

Insulin with higher potency in dogs - require special dosing and maybe difficult for small dogs

30

Vetsulin/Caninsulin

Pen Insulin used for precision dosing in smaller dogs

31

Glucocorticoids - drugs and use?

Produced by the zona of fasciculata
prednisone
prednisolone
dexamethasone
triamcinolone
methylprednisolone
used for their anti-inflammatory effects, used in replacement therapy for hyperadrenocorticism, and for treatment of immune mediated diseases

32

Dexamethasone - special features

7.5 times more potent than prednisone

33

Salt Ester excipients

Make a steroid soluble and suitable for IV administration, may cause onset to be faster but duration is unchanged

34

Insoluble esters

Delay absorption and onset for longer duration

35

Examples of insoluble esters

Pivalate
acetate
acetonide

36

What are the short-term effects of glucocorticoid use?

Polyuria
polydipsia
polyphagia
fetal abnormalities and abortion

37

Long term effects of corticosteroid use

Skin changes like hyperpigmentation, thinning, and alopecia
collagen disease
delayed wound healing
hypertension
thromboembolic disease
addisonian signs with withdrawal

38

Minercorticosteroids- receptors , use, and drugs?

Regulate sodium retention and potassium excretion by the kidney - used for sodium retention
DOCP
Fludricortisone

39

Typical Addison's

Lacking BOTH glucocorticoids & mineralocorticoids - use prednisones plus DOCP or fludrocortisone

40

Atypical Addison's

Lacking of just glucocorticoids - only need to treat with prednisone

41

Iatrogenic Addison's

After chronic use of exogenous glucocorticoids

42

Hyperadrenocorticism

Also known as Cushing's
the excess production of glucocorticoids caused by a functional adrenocortical mass

43

Pheochromocytoma

Functional mass of the adrenal medulla

44

Mitotane- use?

Cytotoxic to the cells of the fasciculata to decrease adrenal gland secretion

45

Trilostane- receptor and use?

Inhibits the production of steroids in the cortical production pathway

46

What is the most common drug used to treat Cushing's?

Trilostane

47

Ketoconazole - receptor?

Inhibits enzymes in the steroid synthesis pathway

48

Pergolide-receptors and use?

Dopamine agonist - Suppresses the production of ACTH and reduces cortisol production- used to treat pituitary pars intermediate dysfunction in horses

49

What is the drug used to treat pituitary pars intermediate dysfunction in horses?

Pergolide

50

Selegiline- receptors and use?

Inhibits monoamine oxidase inhibitor which results in increased dopamine- used in the treatment of canine cognitive dysfunction and attempts to treat Cushing's

51

Hypothyroidism drugs in dogs

Liothyronine (T3)
Levothyroxine (T4)