Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (51):
Which hypothyroid drug requires less frequent dosing and has a lower risk of thyrotoxicosis?
What is the only veterinary approved product for hypothyroidism in dogs?
What are the four ways to stop hyperthyroidism in cats?
Stop the uptake of iodine
Stop the production of T3
stop the release of the molecule (T3 or T4)
stop the conversion of T3 to T4
Why do you feed canned y/d food to a hyperthyroid cat?
It is iodine deficient to stop the conversion of T3 to T4
Methimazole - receptor and uses?
Inhibits thyroid hormone synthesis - used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism and cats
What is the extreme idiosyncratic reaction that occurs with methimazole?
bone marrow suppression
Propylthiouracil (PTU)- receptor and uses?
Inhibit thyroid hormone synthesis and inhibit conversion and T3 to T4 in the tissues- used in the control of hyperthyroidism in cats
Iodides and Iodinated contrast agents - receptor and uses?
Inhibit thyroid hormone synthesis, and inhibit preformed hormone, and inhibit T3 to T4 conversion in the periphery - hyperthyroid drug with the most side effects not used often!
What is used to treat hypoglycemia acutely?
A 5% dextrose solution
What is used to treat chronic hypoglycemia?
A diet of frequent small meals for complex carbohydrates
Does hyperglycemia require therapy?
No! Address the underlying issue or diabetes mellitus
What are the clinical signs of hypocalcemia?
Hyperesthesia, pawing at the face, tremors, flaccid paralysis, seizures, hyperthermia, bradycardia
What is Periparturient hypocalcemia?
Also known as milk fever or eclampsia
caused by sudden increase in calcium usage for which the patient cannot adapt rapidly
usually associated with birth or the lactation
Parenteral calcium options
Calcium gluconate or calcium chloride
Can you administer calcium chloride SQor intramuscular?
No! Very caustic!
What calcium products can be given orally?
Calcium carbonate and calcium proprionate
What is a requirement for oral calcium administration?
The patient must be able to absorb the calcium from the G.I. tract
What is the most potent activated form of vitamin D?
What are the three forms of vitamin D?
What do you oral hypoglycemia agents cause?
Oral hypoglycemia agents- receptors and use?
Stimulate insulin secretion by the pancreatic beta cells and increase tissue sensitivity to insulin - used in the treatment of type II diabetes
used in the treatment of hyperglycemia
Short acting insulin
Humulin R, Crystalline or Neutral insulin
Short acting insulin- use?
Used for hospitalized patients who are not eating
Intermediate acting insulin
Intermediate acting insulin
Good starting insulin for canines but may not provide adequate control in felines
Long acting insulin
Protamine Zinc/ PZI (Prozinc)
Prozinc - use?
Insulin used in cats
Insulin with higher potency in dogs - require special dosing and maybe difficult for small dogs
Pen Insulin used for precision dosing in smaller dogs
Glucocorticoids - drugs and use?
Produced by the zona of fasciculata
used for their anti-inflammatory effects, used in replacement therapy for hyperadrenocorticism, and for treatment of immune mediated diseases
Dexamethasone - special features
7.5 times more potent than prednisone
Salt Ester excipients
Make a steroid soluble and suitable for IV administration, may cause onset to be faster but duration is unchanged
Delay absorption and onset for longer duration
Examples of insoluble esters
What are the short-term effects of glucocorticoid use?
fetal abnormalities and abortion
Long term effects of corticosteroid use
Skin changes like hyperpigmentation, thinning, and alopecia
delayed wound healing
addisonian signs with withdrawal
Minercorticosteroids- receptors , use, and drugs?
Regulate sodium retention and potassium excretion by the kidney - used for sodium retention
Lacking BOTH glucocorticoids & mineralocorticoids - use prednisones plus DOCP or fludrocortisone
Lacking of just glucocorticoids - only need to treat with prednisone
After chronic use of exogenous glucocorticoids
Also known as Cushing's
the excess production of glucocorticoids caused by a functional adrenocortical mass
Functional mass of the adrenal medulla
Cytotoxic to the cells of the fasciculata to decrease adrenal gland secretion
Trilostane- receptor and use?
Inhibits the production of steroids in the cortical production pathway
What is the most common drug used to treat Cushing's?
Ketoconazole - receptor?
Inhibits enzymes in the steroid synthesis pathway
Pergolide-receptors and use?
Dopamine agonist - Suppresses the production of ACTH and reduces cortisol production- used to treat pituitary pars intermediate dysfunction in horses
What is the drug used to treat pituitary pars intermediate dysfunction in horses?
Selegiline- receptors and use?
Inhibits monoamine oxidase inhibitor which results in increased dopamine- used in the treatment of canine cognitive dysfunction and attempts to treat Cushing's