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RUSVM Pharmacology 2016 > Cardiac > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiac Deck (48):
1

Digoxin (Digitalis)

Positive inotropic drug that increases cardiac contractility, increases efficiency of the heart - used for congestive heart failure and atrial arrhythmias and dogs

2

Phenytoin

Human epileptic drug use by injection to manage digital induced arrhythmias

3

Cholestyramine

An antidiarrheal drug that binds to digitalis in the bile ducts and reduces enterohepatic recycling

4

Digoxin immune Fab

Binds Digoxin in the blood for toxicities

5

Inodilators

Pimobendan
Inamrinone
Milrinone

6

Pimobendan -receptor and uses?

Positive inotropic and vasodilator used to treat congestive heart failure and improve the quality and length of life in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy and chronic degenerative valvular disease

DO NOT use and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy!!

7

Beta blockers -receptor and uses?

Block the effects of catecholamines and sympathetic nervous system on the heart causing vasodilation and block the renin-angiotensin II system

8

Carvedilol -receptor and uses?

Nonselective beta blocker and alpha-1 blocker used in the treatment of congestive heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy - improves the quality of life and life span of heart failure patients

9

Other agents used in congestive heart failure

Oxygen therapy
morphine sulfate
Aminophylline
nebulization of ethanol

10

Antihypertensive drugs

Diuretics
beta blockers
vasodilators: ace inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists
calcium channel blockers

11

Losartan-receptor and uses?

Angiotensin II antagonist used to treat hypertension

12

Treatment for sinus bradycardia

Atropine
Isoproterenol

13

Treatment for 2nd° AV block

Atropine
isoproterenol
glucagon

14

Treatment for cardiac asystole

Epinephrine

15

Treatment for atrial flutter

Digoxin
quinidine
procainamide
propranolol

16

Treatment for atrial for fibrillation

Digoxin
quinidine
procainamide
propanolol

17

Treatment for ventricular tachyarrhythmias

Quinidine
procainamide
lidocaine
phenytoin
propanolol

18

Treatment for ventricular tachycardia

Procainamide
lidocaine
quinidine
phenytoin
propanolol

19

Class one antiarrhythmic drugs

Sodium channel blockers

20

Class 1A antiarrhythmic drugs

Prolongs the action potential- quinidine & procainamide

21

Quinidine -uses?

Ventricular arrhythmias and drug of choice to treat atrial fibrillation in horses

22

Procainamide-uses?

Treats ventricular arrhythmias

23

Class 1B antiarrhythmic drugs

Shortens the action potential - lidocaine, phenytoin, & propanolol

24

Lidocaine- uses?

Used to treat ventricular tachycardia and tachyarrhythmias in emergencies in dogs and digitalis induced arrhythmias

25

Phenytoin-uses?

Used to treat digitalis induced arrhythmias in dogs

26

Propanolol-uses?

Used to treat paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, digitalis induced tachyarrhythmias, and arrhythmias due to inhalation anesthesia

27

Class 1C antiarrhythmic drugs

No effect on action potential- used for long-term refractory arrhythmias

28

Class 2 Antiarrhythmic drugs

Beta blockers

29

Beta blockers as antiarrhythmic drugs-uses?

Used to treat mild or moderate congestive heart failure and hypertension and supra and ventricular arrhythmias in cats and hyperthyroid cats

Drug of choice for arrhythmias and cats and hyperthyroid cats

30

Class III antiarrhythmic drugs

Potassium channel blockers

31

Potassium channel blockers

Prolong the action potential duration - used for the treatment of long-term refractory arrhythmias

32

Potassium channel blockers

Bretylium
Amiodarone
Sotalol

33

Class 4 antiarrhythmic drugs

Calcium channel blockers- verapamil & diltiazem

34

Calcium channel blockers -receptor and uses?

Inhibit calcium channels in blood vessels causing vasodilation for hypertension - used to treat supraventricular tachyarrhythmias and myocardial hypertrophy in cats

35

What drug is used to treat myocardial hypertrophy in cats?

Diltiazem

36

What drugs are the drug of choice for supra and ventricular tachyarrhythmias in cats?

Beta blockers

37

What drug is the first line of antihypertensives in cat unless caused by hyperthyroidism?

Amlodipine

38

What drug is a drug of choice to treat atrial fibrillations in horses?

Quinidine

39

What drugs are used to treat ischemic heart disease or angina?

Beta blockers or calcium channel blockers

40

Arterial vasodilator

Hydralazine

41

Venous vasodilator

Nitrates

42

Vasodilators

nonselective Alpha blockers
selective alpha-1 blockers
presynaptic alpha-2 agonist
nonselective beta blockers
selective beta-1 blockers
beta and alpha 1 blockers

43

What are the best vasodilators used in the treatment of congestive heart failure?

ACE inhibitors

44

ACE Inhibitors-receptor and uses?

Inhibit angiotensin II and aldosterone - used in the treatment of congestive heart failure, hypertension, and chronic renal insufficiency in cats

45

What is the drug of choice for hypertension and dogs?

ACE inhibitors

46

ACE inhibitors

Captopril
Enalapril
Benazepril
Lisinopril

47

Vasoconstrictors

Nonselective agonists: epinephrine norepinephrine
selective alpha-1 agonist: Phenylephrine
direct and indirect sympathomimetics: ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine

48

Cardiac stimulants

Parasympatholytics
Sympathomimetics -beta-1 agonists
caffeine derivatives
glucagon