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Flashcards in Anthelmintics Deck (98):
1

What are vermifuges?

expel parasites from intestinal tract

2

What are vermicides?

kill intestinal parasite, then expel

3

Which 2 drugs are an exception and produce pharmacological effects?

organphosphates
levimasole

4

What species is levamisole used in?

ruminants and pigs

5

What species is praziquantel used in?

dogs, cats, horses

6

What species is piperazine salts used in?

monogastric

7

What drugs are used just for ruminants?

salicylanilides, nitroxynil, clorsulon

8

What drug groups are antinematodals?

Benzimidazoles, Probenzimidazoles, imidazothiazoles, tetrahydropyrimidies, organophosphates, macrocyclic lactones, piperazine compounds

9

What is the prodrug that is converted into benzimidazole carbamates?

probenzimidazoles (netobimin and febantel)

10

Which 2 BZDs are water soluble and are limited in absorption from GI tract?

albendazole
oxfendazole

11

What drug does netobimin get metabolized to?

albendazole

12

What probenzimidazole cannot be given to pregnant dogs and cats?

febantel - vercom paste and drontal plus

13

What drugs are under tetrahydropyrimidines?

pyrantel and morantel

14

What is the mode of action of tetrahydropyrimidines?

depolarazing muscular blockade

15

Which species eliminates pyrantel by urine while all the others by feces?

dogs

16

What is the methyl ester analog of pyrantel?

morantel

17

What parasitic infections do organophosphates treat in ruminants?

nematode parasites of abomasum and intestine

18

What are the antidotes for organophosphate toxicity?

atropine and pralidoxime

19

What are the two major groups of macrocyclic lactones?

avermectins
milbemycins

20

What are the 5 avermectin drugs?

abamectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, selamectin

21

What are the 2 milbemycin drugs?

milbemycin oxime and moxidectin

22

What is the MOA for macrocyclic lactones?

bind to glutamate gated chloride channels, inhibits GABA

23

What breeds are sensitive to ivermectin?

australian shepherds and collie breeds, murrah gray cattle

24

Which avermectin is highly effective against screw worms?

doramectin

25

What avermectin deposits in sebaceous glands that act as reservoirs?

selamectin

26

What other avermectin can be used in collies sensitive to ivermectin and also pregnant animals?

selamectin

27

What macrocyclic lactone can be used prophylactically for heartworm in ivermectin sensitive collies and in microfiliaria infested dogs?

milbemycin

28

What can happen in very heavily infested microfilaria dogs when given milbemycin? How is it treated?

shock
corticosteroids and fluids

29

What milbemycin drug is more lipophilic?

moxidectin

30

What is the MOA for piperazine compounds?

GABA receptor agonist - hyperpolarizes membrane

31

Why should piperazine treatments be repeated every 2 to 4 weeks?

effective more against adult stages

32

What animals can piperazine be used in?

monogastric species

33

What can piperazine be combined with to increase activity against cyathostomes?

BZD drugs

34

What salt form of piperazine can be given in the feed?

citrate or adipate salts

35

What are the CS of large doses of piperazine in dogs and cats?

emesis, diarhea, incordination, head pressing

36

What are the contraindications of piperazine?

chronic renal/liver dz
heavy ascarid infections (impaction)

37

What group does diethylcarbamazine citrate fall under?

piperazine compounds

38

What is the only use of diethylcarbamazine citrate?

heartworm prevention

39

What is the MOA of DEC?

inhibits prostaglandin synthesis in parasite

40

How often does DEC need to be administered?

daily

41

When should DEC not be used?

microfilaria positive dogs --> hypovolemic shock

42

What are the 2 heartworm adulticides that inhibit cell glycolysis?

thiacertarsamide sodium
melarsomine

43

What are nematodes?

whipworms, roundworms, ascarids

44

What are cestodes?

flatworms, tapeworms

45

What are trematodes?

flukes

46

What is the MOA of heartoworm adulticides?

inhibit cell glycolysis

47

What animals should not be given thiacertersamide sodium?

liver/kidney fxn problems

48

How is melarsomine better than thiacetersamide sodium?

more potent, better bioavalability

49

What is required after treatment for heartworm infection?

rest for 2 weeks, limited exercise for 6 weeks

50

What are the 3 groups of anticestodal drugs?

natural organic,
synthetic organic
benzimidazoles

51

What drug is effective against taenia and diplydium spp in dogs and cats?

dichlorophen

52

What anti cestodal drug is effective against tapeworms and rumen flukes in ruminants?

resorantel

53

What anticestodal drug has wide spectrum effect against adult and immature stages and some trematodes?

praziquantel

54

What is the MOA of praziquantel?

Calcium release from muscle cells, membrane integrity compromised, vacuolization, burst, allow WBC to go in

55

What is the difference between praziquantel and epsiprantel?

epsiprantel not absorbed from GIT - treats cestodes ONLY

56

What do regular benzimidazoles treat?

nematodes

57

What do substituted BZDs treat?

certain tapeworms and flukes

58

What are the anticestodal BZDs?

mebendazole, fenbendazole, oxfendazole, albendazole

59

What cestode is important in equine medicine?

anoplocephala perfoliata

60

What drugs are effective against anoplocephala perfoliata?

pyrantel, niclosamide, dichlorophen, mebendazole and praziquantel

61

What are the important trematodal infections in veterinary med?

Fasciolosis
rumen flukes
lung flukes - dogs and cats

62

What is bithionol sulfoxide effective against?

rumen flukes and liver flukes of ruminants

63

What are the groups of drugs that are antitrematodal?

bithionol sulfoxide, nitroxynil, salicylanilides, sulfonamides, benzimidazoles

64

What are the 3 salicylanidlide drugs?

closantel, rafoxanide, oxyclozanide

65

What different spectrum does oxyclozanide have?

rumen flukes

66

What is the MOA of salicylanilides?

uncouples oxidative phosphorylation

67

What drug is effective against resistant strains of Haemonchus contortus?

Closantel (also nitroxynil in sheep)

68

What antitrematodal is combined with levamisole to produce broad spectrum helminth activity?

oxyclozanide

69

What type of drug is clorsulon?

sulfonamide

70

What is the MOA of clorsulon?

glycolytic enzyme inhibition of F. hepatica

71

What 2 sulfonamides treat F. hepatica?

clorsulon and albendazole

72

How is clorsulon administered?

oral, SC
safe in all animals

73

What can treat pancreatic flukes in cats?

fenbendazole

74

What is triclabendazole metabolized into?

sulfoxide and sulfone derivatives

75

How long does triclabendazole derivatives last in the plasma?

7 days (very bound to albumin)

76

What is netobimin?

probenzimidazole effective against adult fulkes

77

Why is rafoxanide (and closantel) effective against immature flukes?

extensively plasma protein binding, persistence

78

What are the drugs effective against immature liver flukes only?

diamphenethid

79

How is diamphenethide metabolized?

deacytylation by liver enzymes to an amine metabolite effective against immature flukes

80

What drug is 100% effective against immature F.hepatica?

diamphenethide (treats acute fasciolosis)

81

What can intestinal paramphistomosis be treated with?

resorantel and bithional

82

What can paragonimiasis(lung fluke in dogs and cats) be treated with?

bithionol, prazi, albendazole and fenbendazole

83

What antihelminth drug is an immunostimulant?

levimasole
cell mediated response

84

What animals should not have levimasole?

horses

85

What animals are most antitrematodals given to?

ruminants

86

What drug is contraindicated in early preganancy?

BZDs (except mebendazole, fenbendazole, flubendazole and oxibendazole)

87

How are BZDs administered?

orally only

88

What does drontal plus have in it?

febantel, pyrantel pamoate, praziquantel

89

What 4 drugs should not be given to animals under stress or chronic disease conditions?

Dichlorvos
Organophosphates
Levimasole
Pyrantel

90

What does the commercial product vercom contain?

febantel and praziquantel

91

What animals is febantel used in?

horses, dogs, cats

92

What animals is netobimin used in?

ruminants

93

How are imidazothiazoles administered?

All 3 ways

94

What is the spectrum of levimasole?

GI and lung nematodes (not in horses)

95

What drug do you need gloves for?

levimasole

96

What other drugs should not be combined with levimasole?

other neuromuscular blockade drugs - pyrantel

97

Which pyrantel salt is well absorbed orally?

pyrantel tartrate

98

Which pyrantel salt reaches the lower intestine to kill pinworms?

pyrantel pamoate