Pharm Quiz 2 (redo) - Werner Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharm Quiz 2 (redo) - Werner Deck (161):
1

What protozoa drugs interfere with cytochrome mediated electron transport in mitochondria?

quinolones, pyrinidols (coccidial respiration)

2

What protozoal drugs target apicoplast?

triazine derivatives

3

What drugs act on protozoal membrane?

polyether ionophores

4

What is the MOA of polyether ionophores?

form complexes with sodium in cell membrane --> lowers pH

5

How do pentavalent antimonials work?

inhibit topoisomerase -->interefere with replication

6

What is MOA of diamidine derivatives?

bind to DNA, prevent replication

7

Which drugs cause clumping of heme pigments?

aminoquinolones

8

What drugs inhibit oxidative phosphorylation?

guanidine derivatives

9

What drugs bind to beta tubulin?

benzimidazoles

10

What are the 4 nitromidazole drugs?

metronidazole
tinidazole
ronidazole
benznidazole

11

Why does metronidazole cause seizures?

inhibition of GABA

12

What can metronidazole treat in dogs/cats/horses/cattle?

dogs - giardia, balantidium, entamoeba, pentotrichomonas
cats/horses - giardia
cows - trichomonas

13

What is tinidazole used for in dogs/cats?

dogs - giardia
cats - giardia, t. foetus

14

Banned in the US but what drug is most effective for tritrichomonas foetus?

ronidazole

15

Which drug treats acute trypanosomiasis in dogs?

benznidazole

16

Which is the only nitrofuran drug still in use? What can it treat?

nifurtimox (carcinogenic)
t.cruzi (chagas)

17

What is the MOA of nifurtimox?

oxygen free radicals

18

Which drug binds to disulphide bridges in protozoa?

arsenicals

19

What are the 2 arsenical drugs?

nitarsone, roxarsone

20

What drug is given as feed additive to prevent histo in turkeys/chickens?

nitarsone (withdrawal period - 5 days)

21

What animals can nitarsone not be used?

ducks, pigeons, dogs

22

What are aminoglycosides used for besides protozoa?

gram - bacteria

23

What can paromomycin treat in dogs/cats?

dogs - leishmania visceral
cats - crypto and t. foetus

24

What can paromomycin be used for extra label in goats/cattle?

cattle - crypto, giardia
goats - crypto

25

What are the 2 benzimidazoles used against giardia?

albendazole
fenbendazole

26

What advantage does benzimidazoles have?

no anti-bacterial activity

27

What can treat giardia in dogs and calves but should not be used in cats or pregnant animals?

albendazole

28

What are the side effects of albendazole

dogs/cats - myelosuppression
pregnant - teratogenic

29

What is the drug of choice for giardia infections in dogs/cats/cattle?

fenbendazole

30

What form is fenbendazole administered? What can it be combined with?

febantel (pro drug)
given with pyrantel

31

What can long acting oxytetracycline treat in cattle?

babesia, theileria, and maybe anaplasma

32

What does chlortetracycline treat in horses?

therileria equi (early on)

33

What is drug of choice for babesia canis in dogs?

doxycycline

34

What nenonatal disease in dogs can clindamycin treat?

canine neospora

35

Is clindamycin coccidiostatic or coccidiocidal?

Both, starts as static

36

What drugs are used to treat hepatozoonosis americanum in dogs?

clindamycin, potentiated sulfonamides and pyrimetamine

37

What can prevent relapses of hepatazoonosis in dogs?

decoquinate

38

What are the 2 methods for preventing resistance in poultry for coccidiosis?

shuttle programs
rotation programs

39

What is the treatment of choice for coccidia in small animals?

sulfamethoxine (sulfonamide)

40

What potentiated sulfonamide is used in poultry?

sulfamethoxine - ormetoprim

41

What potentiated sulfonamide is used in horses/dogs/cats?

sulfadiazine - trimethoprim

42

What sulfonamides are used in cattle?

sulfamethazine, sulfaquinoxaline

43

What sulfonamide is used in sheep/rabbites?

sulfaquinoxaline

44

What are the 4 drugs in the hydroquinolone/napthoquinolone group?

decoquinate, atovaquone, paraquone, buparvaquone

45

Which hydroquinolones are poorly absorbed orally?

decoquinate, atovaquone

46

Which hydroquinolone has no withdrawal time for meat?

decoquinate

47

What are the restrictions of using decoquinate for the prevention of coccidiosis?

no laying hens
no lactating animals

48

What drug can be used in pregnant cows to prevent crypto in calves?

decoquinate

49

Which drug has excellent activity against t. gondii and babesia in dogs?

atovaquone

50

What 2 drugs treat theileria in cattle?

parvaquone, buparvaquone

51

What thiamine analogue treats eimeria in birds, calves, dogs, and cats?

amprolium

52

What stages of coccidia are ionophores active against?

extracellular sporozoites/merozoites

53

What animals should not be given polyether ionophores?

horses
guinea fowl

54

What drugs should not be administered with ionophores?

tiamulin, chloramphenicol, macrolides, sulfonamides, cardiac glycosides

55

What are the 6 polyether ionophores?

lasolocid, maduramicin, monensin, narasin, semduramicin, salinomycin

56

Which drug is combined with tiamulin to preven coccidiosis in chickens, turkeys, partridges and rabbits?

lasolocid

57

What drug is combined with tiamulin to prevent coccidia in broilers?

marduramicin and narasin

58

What 2 drugs should not be given to mature turkeys/guinea fowl?

monensin, narasin

59

What is salinomycin only used for?

prevention of coccidia in broilers and bobwhite quail

60

What are the 3 triazine derivatives?

diclazuril, toltrazuril, ponazuril

61

What is the MOA for triazine derivatives?

act on apicoplast

62

What triazine prevents coccidia in turkeys/broilers and is combined with bacitracin?

diclazuril

63

What are the clinical indications of toltrazuril?

nursing pigs - reduce coccidia signs
dogs - reduce hepatozoon CS
horses: treat EPM

64

What is the treatment of choice for EPM?

ponazuril

65

What must ponazuril be combined with to reach concentration in CNS?

DMSO

66

What is the MOA for diamidine?

binds to DNA

67

What 2 major protozoa does diamidine treat?

babesia and theileria

68

What is the treatment of choice for babesia in dogs?

imidocarb dipropionate

69

What are the SE of imidocarb in horses?

azotemia, fetus, urinary

70

What is imidocarb used for in horses?

babesia caballi

71

What is imidocarb used for in cats?

cyatuxzooan felis

72

What must you use with imidocarb to control parasympathetic side effects in cats?

atropine

73

What is the MOA of fipronil?

non competitive block of GABA and glutamate chloride channels

74

What is fipronil used for?

adult fleas and ticks

75

What is fipronil combined with?

methoprene (insect growth regulator)

76

What animal should fipronil not be used in?

young rabbits

77

What drug can be used against fleas that are resistant to fipronil?

nitenpyram

78

What is the MOA of neo nicotinoids?

competitive inhibition of post synaptive nicotinic receptor

79

What 2 drugs are neo nicotinoids?

imidacloprid and nitenpyram

80

What is imidacloprid used for?

kills fleas and prevents from biting

81

How is imidacloprid administered? nitenpyram?

imida - topical
niten - orally

82

What are SE of neo nicotinoids?

termors, hepatic failure

83

What is the MOA of pyrethrins?

sodium channels in axon membrane

84

What are the 2 syndromes of pyrethrins?

type 1 - tremors, hyperexcitability
type 2 - salivation, weakness

85

What is the most widley used pyrethroid in dogs?

permethrin

86

What is the active ingredient in ear tags for cattle?

fenvalerate

87

What pyrethrin/oid is used as a fly repellent in horses?

flumethrin

88

What animals are most sensitive to pyrethrins?

cats, aquatic animals

89

What is the MOA of organophosphates?

irreversible inhibition of AcHE

90

What is the MOA of carbamates?

reversible inhibition of AcHE

91

What are the 3 carbamate drugs?

propoxur, bendiocarb and carbaryl

92

What are the SE seen with organophosphates?

stimulation of parasympathetic nervous system, treat with atropine

93

What organophosphate/carbamate are formulated as sprays/dusts/dips?

coumaphos, phosmet

94

What is the MOA of IDI;s? (insect development inhibitors)

inhibit chitin synthesis

95

How is lufenuron administered?

orally to dogs/cats

96

What is the MOA of amitraz?

inhibits monoamine oxidase -->paralysis

97

Which animals should amitraz not be given?

chihuahuas, pregnant animals
horse and cats are sensitive

98

What drug enchances activity of topical insecticides?

piperonyl butoxide

99

Why pyramidine antivaral looks like thymidine?

idoxuridine

100

What drugs are analogs of guanosine?

acyclovir, ganciclovir

101

What are the 3 anti-retro virals?

zidovudine
amantedine
interferon

102

What are the 3 pyrimidine nucleoside anti viral drugs?

idoxuridine
trifluridine
sorivudine

103

What are the 5 purine nucleosides for antiviral drugs?

Vidarabine
acyclovir
penciclovir
ganciclovir

104

Famciclovir is a pro drug of what other drug?

penciclovir

105

What is the prodrug of acyclovir?

valacyclovir

106

Which purine nucleoside has a small spectrum?

ganciclovir

107

What purine nucleoside is effective against RNA and DNA viruses?

Ribavarin

108

What antiherpes drug is effective against DNA, RNA and retroviruses?

foscarnet

109

What is the MOA of foscarnet?

binds at pyrophosphate site

110

What are the side effects of foscarnet?

alterations in Ca/P homeostasis, rickets

111

What are the 4 reverse transcriptase inhibitors?

zidovudine, lamivudine, stampidine, didanosine

112

What are the SE of zidovudine in cats?

anemia and neutropenia,BM hypercellularity

113

What drug is more safe than zidovudine because it is transported into the mitochondria?

lamivudine

114

What virus is didanosine used for?

HIV

115

What drug also inhibits pain by acting on NMDA receptor?

amantidine

116

What viruses are rimantidine and amantdine good against?

influenza A and B

117

What drug is good for equine influenza?

rimantidine

118

Which influenza drug is eliminated unchanged?

amantadine

119

Which influenza drug has a much larger Vd?

rimantidine

120

What is the MOA of amantdine and rimantadine

inhibition of late stage assembly of virus (m2 ion channel inhibitor)

121

What drug aggregates viral particles?

oseltamivir

122

What drugs can transfer action cell to cell?

interferons

123

What are the 2 allylamine drugs?

terbinafine, natifine

124

What is the MOA of allylamines?

inhibit squalene epoxidase, inhibit ergosterol

125

What are the 3 polyene antibiotics?

ampho B, nystatin, natamycin

126

What is the spectrum and MOA of polyene antibiotics?

broad spectrum
binds to ergosterol --> electrolyte imbalance and death

127

What can ampho B be combined with to synergize against crypto?

flucytosine

128

What is the drug of choice for systemic fungal infections?

amphotericin B

129

What animals can amphotericin B be not used in?

equine or food animals

130

What are the SE of amphotericin B?

nephrotoxicity

131

How can nystatin be administered?

local - topical

132

How can natamycin be administered?

local - opthalmic

133

What drug is the treatment of choice for fusarium keratomycosis in horses?

natamycin

134

What drug can flucytosine be combined with besides ampho B?

ketoconazole

135

What is the MOA of flucytosine?

production of faulty proteins (thymidylate snythase)

136

What are the SE of flucytosine?

GI, elevated liver enzymes, BM suppression

137

What is the MOA of azoles?

inhibit fungal CYP450 ergosterol synthesis

138

Why do azoles have lots of drug to drug interaction?

inhibit PgP efflux pump

139

What is the only topical and systemic imidazole?

ketoconazole

140

What are the 3 topical imidazoles?

enilconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole

141

What does miconazole treat?

keratomycosis and dermatophytosis in dogs/cats

142

What does ketoconazole need to be absorbed from GI?

acidic pH

143

What animals can not be given ketoconazole?

good animals

144

What are the SE of ketoconazole?

GI

145

What are the 4 triazole drugs?

fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole

146

What is fluconazole good at treating since it is excreted in active form?

fungal cystitis

147

What are the SE of fluconazole?

GI, CNS, skin

148

What triazole is good against aspergillus and crypto meningitis?

itraconazole

149

What are the SE of itraconazole?

hepatic toxicosis, GI, teratogenic

150

Which traizole is similar to fluconazole but is more potent and has wider spectrum?

voriconazole

151

Which triazole is effective against zygomycetes?

posaconazole

152

What is the MOA of echinocandins?/

inhibit B glucan synthase

153

What fungi are echinocandins effective against?

yeast, aspergillus, pneuomocystis carinii

154

What drug is an echinocandin?

caspofungin

155

What are the SE of echinocandins?

fever, nausea, phlebitis

156

What way are echinocandins given?

IV formulations

157

What antifungal effects the mitotic spindle and causes cell arrest in mitosis?

griseofulvin

158

What does griseofulvin treat?

dermatophytosis

159

What are the SE of griseofulvin?

Cats - leukopenia, anmia
teratogenic

160

What antifungal inhibits chitin synthesis?

lufenuron (ectoparsiticide)

161

How is lufernon administered?

orally