Flashcards in Pharm Quiz 2 (redo) - Werner Deck (161):
What protozoa drugs interfere with cytochrome mediated electron transport in mitochondria?
quinolones, pyrinidols (coccidial respiration)
What protozoal drugs target apicoplast?
What drugs act on protozoal membrane?
What is the MOA of polyether ionophores?
form complexes with sodium in cell membrane --> lowers pH
How do pentavalent antimonials work?
inhibit topoisomerase -->interefere with replication
What is MOA of diamidine derivatives?
bind to DNA, prevent replication
Which drugs cause clumping of heme pigments?
What drugs inhibit oxidative phosphorylation?
What drugs bind to beta tubulin?
What are the 4 nitromidazole drugs?
Why does metronidazole cause seizures?
inhibition of GABA
What can metronidazole treat in dogs/cats/horses/cattle?
dogs - giardia, balantidium, entamoeba, pentotrichomonas
cats/horses - giardia
cows - trichomonas
What is tinidazole used for in dogs/cats?
dogs - giardia
cats - giardia, t. foetus
Banned in the US but what drug is most effective for tritrichomonas foetus?
Which drug treats acute trypanosomiasis in dogs?
Which is the only nitrofuran drug still in use? What can it treat?
What is the MOA of nifurtimox?
oxygen free radicals
Which drug binds to disulphide bridges in protozoa?
What are the 2 arsenical drugs?
What drug is given as feed additive to prevent histo in turkeys/chickens?
nitarsone (withdrawal period - 5 days)
What animals can nitarsone not be used?
ducks, pigeons, dogs
What are aminoglycosides used for besides protozoa?
gram - bacteria
What can paromomycin treat in dogs/cats?
dogs - leishmania visceral
cats - crypto and t. foetus
What can paromomycin be used for extra label in goats/cattle?
cattle - crypto, giardia
goats - crypto
What are the 2 benzimidazoles used against giardia?
What advantage does benzimidazoles have?
no anti-bacterial activity
What can treat giardia in dogs and calves but should not be used in cats or pregnant animals?
What are the side effects of albendazole
dogs/cats - myelosuppression
pregnant - teratogenic
What is the drug of choice for giardia infections in dogs/cats/cattle?
What form is fenbendazole administered? What can it be combined with?
febantel (pro drug)
given with pyrantel
What can long acting oxytetracycline treat in cattle?
babesia, theileria, and maybe anaplasma
What does chlortetracycline treat in horses?
therileria equi (early on)
What is drug of choice for babesia canis in dogs?
What nenonatal disease in dogs can clindamycin treat?
Is clindamycin coccidiostatic or coccidiocidal?
Both, starts as static
What drugs are used to treat hepatozoonosis americanum in dogs?
clindamycin, potentiated sulfonamides and pyrimetamine
What can prevent relapses of hepatazoonosis in dogs?
What are the 2 methods for preventing resistance in poultry for coccidiosis?
What is the treatment of choice for coccidia in small animals?
What potentiated sulfonamide is used in poultry?
sulfamethoxine - ormetoprim
What potentiated sulfonamide is used in horses/dogs/cats?
sulfadiazine - trimethoprim
What sulfonamides are used in cattle?
What sulfonamide is used in sheep/rabbites?
What are the 4 drugs in the hydroquinolone/napthoquinolone group?
decoquinate, atovaquone, paraquone, buparvaquone
Which hydroquinolones are poorly absorbed orally?
Which hydroquinolone has no withdrawal time for meat?
What are the restrictions of using decoquinate for the prevention of coccidiosis?
no laying hens
no lactating animals
What drug can be used in pregnant cows to prevent crypto in calves?
Which drug has excellent activity against t. gondii and babesia in dogs?
What 2 drugs treat theileria in cattle?
What thiamine analogue treats eimeria in birds, calves, dogs, and cats?
What stages of coccidia are ionophores active against?
What animals should not be given polyether ionophores?
What drugs should not be administered with ionophores?
tiamulin, chloramphenicol, macrolides, sulfonamides, cardiac glycosides
What are the 6 polyether ionophores?
lasolocid, maduramicin, monensin, narasin, semduramicin, salinomycin
Which drug is combined with tiamulin to preven coccidiosis in chickens, turkeys, partridges and rabbits?
What drug is combined with tiamulin to prevent coccidia in broilers?
marduramicin and narasin
What 2 drugs should not be given to mature turkeys/guinea fowl?
What is salinomycin only used for?
prevention of coccidia in broilers and bobwhite quail
What are the 3 triazine derivatives?
diclazuril, toltrazuril, ponazuril
What is the MOA for triazine derivatives?
act on apicoplast
What triazine prevents coccidia in turkeys/broilers and is combined with bacitracin?
What are the clinical indications of toltrazuril?
nursing pigs - reduce coccidia signs
dogs - reduce hepatozoon CS
horses: treat EPM
What is the treatment of choice for EPM?
What must ponazuril be combined with to reach concentration in CNS?
What is the MOA for diamidine?
binds to DNA
What 2 major protozoa does diamidine treat?
babesia and theileria
What is the treatment of choice for babesia in dogs?
What are the SE of imidocarb in horses?
azotemia, fetus, urinary
What is imidocarb used for in horses?
What is imidocarb used for in cats?
What must you use with imidocarb to control parasympathetic side effects in cats?
What is the MOA of fipronil?
non competitive block of GABA and glutamate chloride channels
What is fipronil used for?
adult fleas and ticks
What is fipronil combined with?
methoprene (insect growth regulator)
What animal should fipronil not be used in?
What drug can be used against fleas that are resistant to fipronil?
What is the MOA of neo nicotinoids?
competitive inhibition of post synaptive nicotinic receptor
What 2 drugs are neo nicotinoids?
imidacloprid and nitenpyram
What is imidacloprid used for?
kills fleas and prevents from biting
How is imidacloprid administered? nitenpyram?
imida - topical
niten - orally
What are SE of neo nicotinoids?
termors, hepatic failure
What is the MOA of pyrethrins?
sodium channels in axon membrane
What are the 2 syndromes of pyrethrins?
type 1 - tremors, hyperexcitability
type 2 - salivation, weakness
What is the most widley used pyrethroid in dogs?
What is the active ingredient in ear tags for cattle?
What pyrethrin/oid is used as a fly repellent in horses?
What animals are most sensitive to pyrethrins?
cats, aquatic animals
What is the MOA of organophosphates?
irreversible inhibition of AcHE
What is the MOA of carbamates?
reversible inhibition of AcHE
What are the 3 carbamate drugs?
propoxur, bendiocarb and carbaryl
What are the SE seen with organophosphates?
stimulation of parasympathetic nervous system, treat with atropine
What organophosphate/carbamate are formulated as sprays/dusts/dips?
What is the MOA of IDI;s? (insect development inhibitors)
inhibit chitin synthesis
How is lufenuron administered?
orally to dogs/cats
What is the MOA of amitraz?
inhibits monoamine oxidase -->paralysis
Which animals should amitraz not be given?
chihuahuas, pregnant animals
horse and cats are sensitive
What drug enchances activity of topical insecticides?
Why pyramidine antivaral looks like thymidine?
What drugs are analogs of guanosine?
What are the 3 anti-retro virals?
What are the 3 pyrimidine nucleoside anti viral drugs?
What are the 5 purine nucleosides for antiviral drugs?
Famciclovir is a pro drug of what other drug?
What is the prodrug of acyclovir?
Which purine nucleoside has a small spectrum?
What purine nucleoside is effective against RNA and DNA viruses?
What antiherpes drug is effective against DNA, RNA and retroviruses?
What is the MOA of foscarnet?
binds at pyrophosphate site
What are the side effects of foscarnet?
alterations in Ca/P homeostasis, rickets
What are the 4 reverse transcriptase inhibitors?
zidovudine, lamivudine, stampidine, didanosine
What are the SE of zidovudine in cats?
anemia and neutropenia,BM hypercellularity
What drug is more safe than zidovudine because it is transported into the mitochondria?
What virus is didanosine used for?
What drug also inhibits pain by acting on NMDA receptor?
What viruses are rimantidine and amantdine good against?
influenza A and B
What drug is good for equine influenza?
Which influenza drug is eliminated unchanged?
Which influenza drug has a much larger Vd?
What is the MOA of amantdine and rimantadine
inhibition of late stage assembly of virus (m2 ion channel inhibitor)
What drug aggregates viral particles?
What drugs can transfer action cell to cell?
What are the 2 allylamine drugs?
What is the MOA of allylamines?
inhibit squalene epoxidase, inhibit ergosterol
What are the 3 polyene antibiotics?
ampho B, nystatin, natamycin
What is the spectrum and MOA of polyene antibiotics?
binds to ergosterol --> electrolyte imbalance and death
What can ampho B be combined with to synergize against crypto?
What is the drug of choice for systemic fungal infections?
What animals can amphotericin B be not used in?
equine or food animals
What are the SE of amphotericin B?
How can nystatin be administered?
local - topical
How can natamycin be administered?
local - opthalmic
What drug is the treatment of choice for fusarium keratomycosis in horses?
What drug can flucytosine be combined with besides ampho B?
What is the MOA of flucytosine?
production of faulty proteins (thymidylate snythase)
What are the SE of flucytosine?
GI, elevated liver enzymes, BM suppression
What is the MOA of azoles?
inhibit fungal CYP450 ergosterol synthesis
Why do azoles have lots of drug to drug interaction?
inhibit PgP efflux pump
What is the only topical and systemic imidazole?
What are the 3 topical imidazoles?
enilconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole
What does miconazole treat?
keratomycosis and dermatophytosis in dogs/cats
What does ketoconazole need to be absorbed from GI?
What animals can not be given ketoconazole?
What are the SE of ketoconazole?
What are the 4 triazole drugs?
fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole
What is fluconazole good at treating since it is excreted in active form?
What are the SE of fluconazole?
GI, CNS, skin
What triazole is good against aspergillus and crypto meningitis?
What are the SE of itraconazole?
hepatic toxicosis, GI, teratogenic
Which traizole is similar to fluconazole but is more potent and has wider spectrum?
Which triazole is effective against zygomycetes?
What is the MOA of echinocandins?/
inhibit B glucan synthase
What fungi are echinocandins effective against?
yeast, aspergillus, pneuomocystis carinii
What drug is an echinocandin?
What are the SE of echinocandins?
fever, nausea, phlebitis
What way are echinocandins given?
What antifungal effects the mitotic spindle and causes cell arrest in mitosis?
What does griseofulvin treat?
What are the SE of griseofulvin?
Cats - leukopenia, anmia
What antifungal inhibits chitin synthesis?