Kumar's Final Review - Anti-Helmenthics - AH Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Kumar's Final Review - Anti-Helmenthics - AH Deck (56):
1

What are the Anti-nematodal (roundworm) drugs?

BZDs, Levamisole, Pyrantel/Morantel, Dichlorvos, Macrocyclic lactones, Piperazine, HW adulticides

2

What drugs are anti-cestodal (tapeworms)?

Dichlorphen, Resorantel, Praziquantel, Epsiprantel, BZDs

3

What drugs are anti-trematodal (flukes)?

Bithionol, Nitroxynil, Salicylanilides, Sulfonamides (clorsulon), and BZDs (albendazole and triclabendazole)

4

BZD MOA?

Irreversibly binds to nematode Beta-tubulin → inhibition of microtubules

5

Adverse effects of BZDs?

Contraindicated in pregnancy → teratogenic

6

Which group of BDZs are also effective against cestodes?

Carbamates: Mebendazole (taenia), oxibendazole, Albendazole, Fenbendazole

7

What are the two proBZDs?

Albendazole → Netobimin. Fenbendazole → Febantel.

8

What happens to the sulphoxide in the proBDZs?

They are later converted to sulphoxones

9

MOA of Imidazothiazoles?

Neuromuscular blockade (never combine)

10

How are Imidazothiazoles administered?

Oral, parenteral (SC) or topical

11

Name a Imidazothiazole that is a l-isomer of dl-tetramisole

Levamisole

12

MOA of Levamisole (2)

1. Ganglionic stimulant and direct cholinergic drug. Binds to nicotinic receptors of nematode parasites → depolarization blockade. 2. immunostimulator (CMI)

13

Margine of safety for Levamisole?

narrow margin of safety. Safety factor is twice that of Tetramisole.

14

What increases the toxicity of lavamisole?

simultaneous admin of pyrantel tartrate

15

What animals should you avoid giving Levamisole to?

Lactating dairy animals

16

Why do you need to wear gloves when handling Levamisole?

Percutaneous absorption → blood disorders/ fatal agranulocytosis

17

What drugs are included in Tetrahydropyrimidines group?

Pyrantel and Morantel

18

Which is safer, pyrantel or morantel?

morantel

19

MOA of Tetrahydropyprimidines?

Depolarization blockade → paralysis of nematode

20

How are Tetrahydropyprimidines administered?

Oral only → GI nematodes and lungworms

21

What animals should not be given Organophosphate compounds?

Ill or stressed patients

22

What can be used to treat pinworms?

Pamoate salt – not soluble → GI

23

What organophophate can be incorporated into polyvinal pellets?

Dichlorvos

24

What Organophophate is effective against Whipworms Trich spp.?

Dichlorvos

25

Dichlorvos MOA?

irreversible inhibition of AchE → paralysis of nematodes

26

MOA of Macrocyclic Lactones?

Binds to Cl- channels → increase in GABA → hyperpolarization → flaccid paralysis of parasite and expulsion

27

What are the two main categories of Macrocyclic Lactones?

Avermectins and Mibemycins

28

What are the 5 Avermectins?

Ivermectin, Doramectin, Eprinomectin, (Selamectin, Abametin)

29

What Avermectin can't be given to collies, aussies or murrah gray cattle?

Ivermectin

30

Which Avermectin has a low milk plasma ratio and can be used in dairy cows?

Eprinomectin

31

Which Avermectin can be used in the Tx of screw worms and Myiasis?

Doramectin

32

Prophylactic against H Ws → micro filaricide

Mibemycins

33

What are the two Mibemycins?

Milbemycin Oxime and Moxidectin

34

Piperazine class spectrum?

Narrow

35

Drugs in the Piperazine class include?

Piperazine and Diethylcarbazine (DEC)

36

When should you avoid giving Piperazine?

In animals with chronic liver Dz and in heavy ascarid infxns → intestinal impaction or rupture

37

how is Diethylcarbazine used?

As a prophylactic HW Tx – adult stages of nematode only (no microfilaria)

38

What needs to be done before Tx with DEC?

Dog should be cleared of adult and larval microfilaria or risk anaphylaxis

39

Tx timing for DEC?

Restart Tx 4 weeks after the first Tx

40

What are the two heartworm adulticides?

Thiacetarsamide sodium and Melarsomine

41

Which HW adulticide is safest and more potent?

Melarsomine

42

Toxicity of Thiacetarsamide Na?

Nephrotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity

43

Restorantel can be used to treat?

Rumen flukes (parphistomeum) and Moneizia spp. In ruminants

44

Which anti-cestodal is only used to tx cectodes?

Episprantel

45

Praziquantel spectrum?

Wide = adult and larval cestodes and trematodes (shistosomes)

46

Vd of praziquantel?

well absorbed and distributed

47

MOA of Praziquantel?

Centres on Ca++ ion flux across the surface membranes of the exposed parasite. Adult cestodes –release >of Ca from mm stores. In schistosoma –Ca >is taken up –mm >contraction –paralysis.> In both –vacuolization >--blebs –burst >and create leasons though which neutrophilic/eos granulocytes can enter and cause lysis > >

48

What does Closantel treat?

Mature and immature stages of flukes. Effective against resistant strains of H. contortus

49

MOA of closantel?

Proton Ionophor: Uncouples oxidative phophorylation

50

Clorsulon MOA?

inhibits glycolytic pathway → inhibition of ATP production

51

Rafoxanide MOA?

Protein Ionophor: Uncouples oxidative phophorylation → decreased ATP production

52

Which anti-trematodal is FDA approved for liver flukes?

Clorsulon

53

Which anti-trematodal is highly protein bound (99%) with a half life of 17 days?

Rafoxanide

54

Which anti-trematodals are broad spectrum for immature and mature flukes?

Rafoxanide and closantel

55

Which anti-trematodal has metabolites that remain protein bound for 7 days?

Ticholrbendazole

56

What drug is 100% effective against immature F. heptica?

Diamphenethide