Opthalamic Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Opthalamic Drugs Deck (51):
1

The topical route is used to target which structures of the eye? (4)

Conjunctiva
Cornea
Anterior Uvea
Eye Lids

2

Systemic route is used to target which structures of the eye? (4)

Eye Lids
Posterior Segment
Optic nerve
Anterior Segment

3

Which structures of the eye serve as drug reservoirs? (3)

Cornea
Lens
Uveal pigment (melanin)

4

Which drugs are formulated for topical administration?

Solutions, suspensions & ointments

5

Which route of admin allows for depot storage & achieves [high] in the ANTERIOR chamber?

Subconjunctival Therapy

6

Which route of admin achieves very high [drug] by injection of the drug into the AQUEOUS/VITREOUS HUMOR?

Intracameral Therapy

7

Absorption after TOPICAL admin is determined by what? (TQ)

Amt. of time drug hangs around
Nasolacrimal drainage
Binding to tear proteins
Metabolism by tear & tissue proteins
Diffusion across cornea & conjunctiva

8

Systemic distribution of TOPICALLY admin. drugs?

Nasal mucosal absorption
Local ocular distribution
How easily is passes the cornea & accumulates in the aqueous humor
Does is bind melanin?

9

Enzymatic biotransformation occurs in the eye via _________.

Esterases

10

Which type of drugs are more effective in the eye?

pro-drugs

11

What 2 agents cause MYDRIASIS (dilation) of the pupil?

Sympathomimetic drugs
Parasympatholytic drugs

12

What agent causes MIOSIS (constr.) of the pupil?

Parasympathomimetic drugs

13

What agents cause pinpoint pupils?

Opioids

14

What should you always do before using anti-biotics on the eyes? (TQ)

ID the pathogen!!

NEVER TX NON-INFECTED EYES (resistance)

15

What 3 anti-biotics are frequently used to TX eyes in Vet med?

Chloramphenicol
Fluoroquinolones (Cipro)
Gentamicin-Amikacin-Tobramycin combo

16

What drugs are your 1st choice for TXing corneal ulcers & bacterial conjunctivits?

BNP
NPG

17

Which anti-microbial is the 1st choice in small animal practice? What's the problem?

Chloramphenicol

won't TX Pseudomonas

18

Which anti-microbial will penetrate an intact cornea?

Ciprofloxacin

19

Which drugs do you use to TX keratomycosis?

Polyene antibiotics
Imidazoles
Nucleoside analogs

20

What 3 drugs do you use equal amts of to TX corneal ulcers?

Natamycin
Tobramycin
Cefazolin

21

What can you use to cause proteinase inhibition (thereby TXing corneal ulcers)?

Plasma alpha2-macroglobulin
Chelating agents (EDTA, Acetylcysteine, & Tetracyclines)

22

How can you decrease intraocular pressure & TX glaucoma? (4)

Decr. aqueous humor production
Incr. aqueous humor outflow
Neuroprotection from glutamate signalling
Surgery?

23

What are 3 topical prostaglandin analogs used to TX glaucoma?

Latanoprost
Bimatoprost
Travoprost

24

What are 3 beta-adrenoceptor antagonists used to TX glaucoma?

Timolol
Metipranolol
Betaxolol

25

What drugs reduce formation of bicarbonate & reduce fluid transport (glaucoma TX)?

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

26

What drug increases aqueous outflow via increasing trabecular outflow?

Pilocarpine (topical miotic)

27

What Ca channel blocker can be used to prevent excitotoxicty in glaucoma?

Amlodipine

28

What NMDA channel blocker can be used to prevent excitotoxicity in glaucoma?

Memantine

29

What type of drugs can be used to TX allergic conjunctivits? (TQ)

Antihistamines
Mast-cell stabilizers

30

What drugs can you NOT use on a damaged cornea? (TQ)

Glucocorticoids

31

What are the main anatagonists used in Vet med?

Muscarinic antagonists

32

What disinfectant can be used when DXing eye issues?

2% povidone iodine

33

What is the main route of entry & absorption pathway into the eye?

Corneal route
Cornea--> Aqueous humor--> Iris--> systemic circulation

34

How can you change the elimination half life of eye meds? (3)

change tear production
change drainage
change blinking rate

35

What 2 drugs are subconjunctival therapy used for?

Antibiotics
Corticosteriods

36

What are the 2 host-derived proteinases that lead to corneal ulceration?

zinc metalloproteinases (MMPs)
Neutrophil serine proteinase

37

What are the systemic proteinase inhibitors used to TX corneal ulcres?

Homologous plasma or serum- topically
Combo w/ EDTA or Acetylcysteine

38

How does heparin inhibit proteinases? (TQ)

Impedes extravasation of leukocytes

39

Which types of proteinases do Ilomastat inhibit?

Inhibits endogenous & Pseudomonas proteinases

40

Which drug class affects trabecular outflow?

Muscarinic agonists

41

Which drug class affects uveoscleral outflow?

Prostaglandin agonists

42

Which drug classes affect aqueous humor inflow? (3)

Beta- blockers
Alpha 2 Agonists
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors

43

What is the MOA of Beta-blockers?
(Timolol, Metipranolo, & Betaxolol)

non-selective drugs
blocks cAMP-PKA pathways and reduces aqueous humor production

44

What receptor do prostaglandin analogs bind to?

Gq receptor - Phospholipase C- IP3-Ca pathway

45

What is the MOA of Alpha 2 Agonists? (TQ)

Inhibits adenylate cyclase
reduced Na/K/ATPase activity

46

What is the MOA of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors?

reduce formation of bicarbonate & fluid transport

47

Which anti-inflammatory is immunosuppressive & highly lipophilic? (TQ)

Cyclosporin A

48

What drug is sympatholytic & causes miosis?

Timolol acetate

49

What 3 drugs are parasympatholytic & cause mydriasis?

Atropine
Tropicamide
Scopolamine

50

Which 2 drugs are sympthomimetic drugs & cause mydriasis? (used to TX anterior uveitis)

Phenylephrine
Epinephrine

51

What local anaesthetics can be used as DX aids?

Proparacaine & Tetracaine --> topical
Lidocaine & Bupivacaine --> infiltration anaesthetics