Flashcards in Opthalamic Drugs Deck (51):
The topical route is used to target which structures of the eye? (4)
Systemic route is used to target which structures of the eye? (4)
Which structures of the eye serve as drug reservoirs? (3)
Uveal pigment (melanin)
Which drugs are formulated for topical administration?
Solutions, suspensions & ointments
Which route of admin allows for depot storage & achieves [high] in the ANTERIOR chamber?
Which route of admin achieves very high [drug] by injection of the drug into the AQUEOUS/VITREOUS HUMOR?
Absorption after TOPICAL admin is determined by what? (TQ)
Amt. of time drug hangs around
Binding to tear proteins
Metabolism by tear & tissue proteins
Diffusion across cornea & conjunctiva
Systemic distribution of TOPICALLY admin. drugs?
Nasal mucosal absorption
Local ocular distribution
How easily is passes the cornea & accumulates in the aqueous humor
Does is bind melanin?
Enzymatic biotransformation occurs in the eye via _________.
Which type of drugs are more effective in the eye?
What 2 agents cause MYDRIASIS (dilation) of the pupil?
What agent causes MIOSIS (constr.) of the pupil?
What agents cause pinpoint pupils?
What should you always do before using anti-biotics on the eyes? (TQ)
ID the pathogen!!
NEVER TX NON-INFECTED EYES (resistance)
What 3 anti-biotics are frequently used to TX eyes in Vet med?
What drugs are your 1st choice for TXing corneal ulcers & bacterial conjunctivits?
Which anti-microbial is the 1st choice in small animal practice? What's the problem?
won't TX Pseudomonas
Which anti-microbial will penetrate an intact cornea?
Which drugs do you use to TX keratomycosis?
What 3 drugs do you use equal amts of to TX corneal ulcers?
What can you use to cause proteinase inhibition (thereby TXing corneal ulcers)?
Chelating agents (EDTA, Acetylcysteine, & Tetracyclines)
How can you decrease intraocular pressure & TX glaucoma? (4)
Decr. aqueous humor production
Incr. aqueous humor outflow
Neuroprotection from glutamate signalling
What are 3 topical prostaglandin analogs used to TX glaucoma?
What are 3 beta-adrenoceptor antagonists used to TX glaucoma?
What drugs reduce formation of bicarbonate & reduce fluid transport (glaucoma TX)?
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
What drug increases aqueous outflow via increasing trabecular outflow?
Pilocarpine (topical miotic)
What Ca channel blocker can be used to prevent excitotoxicty in glaucoma?
What NMDA channel blocker can be used to prevent excitotoxicity in glaucoma?
What type of drugs can be used to TX allergic conjunctivits? (TQ)
What drugs can you NOT use on a damaged cornea? (TQ)
What are the main anatagonists used in Vet med?
What disinfectant can be used when DXing eye issues?
2% povidone iodine
What is the main route of entry & absorption pathway into the eye?
Cornea--> Aqueous humor--> Iris--> systemic circulation
How can you change the elimination half life of eye meds? (3)
change tear production
change blinking rate
What 2 drugs are subconjunctival therapy used for?
What are the 2 host-derived proteinases that lead to corneal ulceration?
zinc metalloproteinases (MMPs)
Neutrophil serine proteinase
What are the systemic proteinase inhibitors used to TX corneal ulcres?
Homologous plasma or serum- topically
Combo w/ EDTA or Acetylcysteine
How does heparin inhibit proteinases? (TQ)
Impedes extravasation of leukocytes
Which types of proteinases do Ilomastat inhibit?
Inhibits endogenous & Pseudomonas proteinases
Which drug class affects trabecular outflow?
Which drug class affects uveoscleral outflow?
Which drug classes affect aqueous humor inflow? (3)
Alpha 2 Agonists
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
What is the MOA of Beta-blockers?
(Timolol, Metipranolo, & Betaxolol)
blocks cAMP-PKA pathways and reduces aqueous humor production
What receptor do prostaglandin analogs bind to?
Gq receptor - Phospholipase C- IP3-Ca pathway
What is the MOA of Alpha 2 Agonists? (TQ)
Inhibits adenylate cyclase
reduced Na/K/ATPase activity
What is the MOA of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors?
reduce formation of bicarbonate & fluid transport
Which anti-inflammatory is immunosuppressive & highly lipophilic? (TQ)
What drug is sympatholytic & causes miosis?
What 3 drugs are parasympatholytic & cause mydriasis?
Which 2 drugs are sympthomimetic drugs & cause mydriasis? (used to TX anterior uveitis)