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Flashcards in FINAL - TS Deck (109):
1

What antiviral is used for pain?

Amantadine (m2 ion channel inhibitor)

2

What antifungal is used for respiratory infections?

ketoconazole (imidazole)

3

Which 2 antifungals do not act on membrane or cell wall?

Griseofulvine (mitotic spindles)
Pyramidine analog (DNA synthesis)

4

What are the SE of polyene mycotics (amphotericin B)?

renal, endothelial irritant, hypokalemia

5

What anti-fungal inhibits squalene epoxidase?

allylamines

6

What antiprotozoal has CV effects in horses and guinea fowl?

polyether ionophores

7

What anti-protozoal binds disulphide bridges?

arsenicals (roxarsone)

8

What is the MOA of organophosphates?

irreversible inhibition of AChE

9

What is the MOA of carbamates?

reversibile inhibition of AChE

10

What receptors do pyrethrins and pyrethroids act on?

sodium channels, GABA, nicotinic

11

What are the SE of pyrethrins and pyrethroids?

nerve and muscular disorders, dont use in cats

12

How is resistance acquired against pyrethroids?

decrease in sensitivity of target site

13

What receptors do macrocyclic lactones act on? (according to werner)

Glutamate, GABA, glycine

14

What is the MOA of fipronil?

GABA and glutamate

15

What ectoparasiticide inhibits chitin synthesis?

lufernon

16

What is the MOA of amitraz? (formamidine)

inhibits MAO (also alpha 2 receptors?)

17

Which diuretic has the least amount of bone loss?

thiazide diuretics

18

What are the extra-renal effects of thiazide diuretics?

hyperglyemia, vasodilation

19

What drug blocks AT1 receptor and is used for chronic renal failure?

Telmisartin

20

What drugs can be used for the prostate?

basic and lipophilic drugs, erythromycins

21

What drugs are used for incontinence on the bladder?

parasympathicolytics
sympathicomimetics (clenbuterol)

22

What drugs are used for incontinence on the sphincter?

sympathomimetics
estrogens

23

What drugs cause dilation of the pupil?

sympathomimetic, parasympatholytic

24

What drugs cause constriction of pupil?

just parasympathomimetic

25

What antifungal does not penetrate cornea?

polyene antibiotics (amphotericin B)

26

What drugs are combined with plasma serum to put on eye?

EDTA or acetylcysteine

27

What drugs act on trabecular ouflow?

muscarinic agonists

28

What drugs act on uveoscleral outlfow?

prostaglandin agonists

29

What drugs act on aqueous humor inflow?

beta 2 blockers
alpha 2 agonists
CAIs

30

What antimycotic is used for aspergillosis?

enilconazole

31

What is the effect of bromhexine and dembrexin?

increase mucous gland evacuation

32

What 4 drug groups modify airway resistance?

anticholinergics, beta 2 agonists, sympathetic amines, phosphodiesterase inhibitors

33

What alkylating chemotherapy drug has low BM toxicity?

cisplatin

34

What is the MOA of alkylating drugs?

carbonium ion --> dna synthesis

35

What is the MOA of plant derivative chemo drugs?

microtubule fxn

36

What are the SE of prostaglandin alpha 2 analogs?

colic, increased muscle tone, GI signs, retained placenta

37

What sulfonamide is for opthalmic use?

sulfacetamide

38

What are the SE of sulfonamides?

KCS, hepatic necrosis, thyroid

39

How are sulfonamides metabolized?

acetylation

40

What are the extended spectrum/anti-pseudomonal beta lactams?

ticarcillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin, mezlocillin, azlocillin

41

What cephalosporin is distributed to CSF fluid?

Cefuroxime

42

What beta lactam has low immunogenic profile?

aztreonam (a monobactam)

43

What antibiotic drug group has neuromuscular blockade for SE?

aminoglycosides

44

What is the drug of choice for equine ehrlichia?

oxytetracycline

45

How are chloramphenicols metabolized?

glucoronidation

46

What is the drug of choice for campylobacter jejuni?

erythromycin

47

What antibiotic group inhibits translocation at the 50s subunit?

macrolides

48

What is the drug of choice for mycoplasma?

tiamulin

49

What antibiotic causes overgrowth in hind gut fermenters and is fatal?

lincosamide

50

What antibiotic group accumulates in macrophages?

fluoroquinolones

51

What are the SE of fluoroquinolones?

arthropathy, ocular, inhibits GABA

52

What antibiotic group results in histamine release?

vancomycin

53

What antibiotic group inhibits energy metabolism by blocking oxidative decarboxylation of coA?

nitrofurans

54

What drugs can methenamine not be used with?

sulfonamides

55

What antibiotic drug group is good for giardia and anaerobic bacteria?

metronidazole

56

What is the centrally acting emetic for dogs? cats?

dogs - apomorphine
cats - xylazine

57

What drug antagonizes apomorphine emesis?

metoclopramide

58

What drug blocks substance P emesis?

maripotant citrate

59

What is the contraindication of maripotant citrate?

puppies less than 11 weeks, BM

60

What is the most potent H2 receptor antagonist of antisecretory drugs?

famotidine

61

What antisecretory drug can be used in patients with acute hepatic problems?

nizatidine

62

What is the broadest prokinetic agent?

cisapride

63

What are the opiods that decrease motility?

morphine, fentanyl, meperidine, diphenoxylate, difenoxin, loperamide, paragoric

64

What is used for sand colic?

psyllium granules

65

What is lactulose used for?

saline/osmotic purgative

66

What contracts gall bladder by increasing SO4?

cholagogues

67

What is the MOA of digitalis?

Na/K ATPase

68

What inotropic drug increases binding of muscle to calcium?

pimobendan (also a vasodilator)

69

What are the characteristics of pimobendan?

antiarrythmic, inotropic, vasodilator, no effect on oxygen consumption

70

What vasodilator has minimal reflex tachycardia?

prazosin

71

What drugs are contraindicated with ace inhibitors?

NSAIDs

72

What do class IA antiarrythmics do?

prolong refractory
shorten phase 0
also prolong AP

73

What is the most broad spectrum anti-arrythmic drug?

aprindine

74

What 2 classes prolong AP?

class 1 and 3

75

What class can not be used with beta blockers?

class 4 (calcium antagonists)

76

What kind of drug is dilitiazem?

calcium antagonist

77

What antiarrythmic should not be given to halogenetade anesthetics?

bretylium

78

What antiarrythmic drugs are used for high levels of catecholamines?

beta blockers (propranolol and metoprolol)

79

What is dopamine used for in the cardiovascular system?

oliguric renal failure

80

What is netobimin a prodrug of?

albendazole

81

What is the MOA of benzimidazoles?

irreversible binding to microtubulin

82

What antinematodal drug is a immune stimulant?

levimasole

83

What is anoplocephela perfoliata treated with?

pyrantel

84

What treats pinworms in horses?

pyrantel pamoate salt

85

What treats whipworms such as trichuris sp?

dichlorvos - pellets!

86

What is the MOA of macrocyclic lactones?

glutamate gated chloride channels - paralysis

87

What drug is used for screwworms?

doramectin

88

What is the contraindication of piperazine?

intestinal impaction of dead worms

89

What is the MOA of piperazine?

GABA agonist - paralysis

90

What drug for rumen flukes?

resorantel

91

What is the MOA of praziquantel?

calcium ion flux - vacuoles

92

What does rafoxanide treat?

immature flukes and adult flukes

93

What antitrematodal is injectable?

nitroxynil

94

What drug is effective against haemonchus contortus?

closantel

95

What antitrematodals are extensively PP bound?

rafoxanide and closantel

96

What is the MOA of diamphenethide?

amine metabolite 100% against immature flukes

97

What is the MOA of hydralazine and minoxidil?

opening of K+ channels in artery muscle

98

What vessels does nitroglycerin relax?

mostly large veins

99

What is the MOA of Isoxsuprine?

beta 2 agonist - dilates skeletal muscle BV

100

What drug is used for canine pulmonary hypertension and what is MOA?

sildenafil,, phosphodiesterase V inhibitor, inhibit cGMP degredation, relax pulmonary BV

101

What is the MOA of enalapril?

inhibit peptidyl dipeptidase to convert angiotension, also inhibit bradykinin degredation

102

What is the MOA of isoproterenol?

beta 1 and 2 agonist, emergency heart block

103

What is the alpha glusidase inhibitor?

acarbose

104

What is the gila monster drug?

xanalatide

105

What insulin has no peak?

glarginine

106

What is the MOA of azoles?

block ergosterol

107

What is the MOA of piperonyl butoxide?

inhibits MFO of insect

108

What is the MOA of thiazide diuretics?

inhibit Na/Cl symport

109

What is the MOA of distal diuretics?

inhibit Na/K exchange