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Flashcards in anti-virals Deck (120):
1

moa of oseltamivir

inhibits influenze neuraminidase - decreases release of progeny viruses

2

moa of zanamivir

inhibits influenza neuraminidase - decreases release of progeny viruses

3

treatment of influenza A and B

oseltamivir
zanamivir
MIVIRs

4

prevention of influenza A and B

oseltamivir
zanamivir
MIVIRs

5

MOA of acyclovir/famciclovir, valacyclovir

guanosine analougs
monoPi by HSV/VZV thymidine kinase and not uninfected cells
triphosphate by host enzymes
inhibits viral DNA polymerase by chain termination

6

treatment of HSV and VZV

acyclovir, famciclovir, valacyclovir

7

what virsus foes acyclovir, famiciclovir and valacyclovir work against?

HSV, VZV, weak against EBV
NO CMV

8

treatment of HSV induced mucocutanoeus and genital lesiosn

acyclovir
famiciclovir
valacyclovir

9

treatment of HSV encephalitis

acyclovir
famiciclovir
valacyclovir

10

use of acyclovir in immunosuppressed indvls

prhophylaxis

11

doc at herpes zoster

famiciclovir

12

toxo of acyclovir

obstructive crystalline nephropathy
acute renal failure

13

how do prevent toxo of acyclovir

hydration to prevent obstructive crystalline nephropathy/acute renal failure

14

how do HSV and VZV resists acyclovir

muta viral thymidine kinase

15

moa fo ganciclovir

5'monophosphate formed by a CMV viral kinase
guanosine analog
triphosphate formed by cellular kinases
inhibits viral DNA polymerase by chain termination

16

doc of CMV, especially in immunocmopromised

ganciclovir

17

toxos of ganciclovir

leukopenia
neutropenia
thrombocytopenia
renal toxicity

18

which is more toxic to host cells, acyclovir of ganciclovir

ganvivclovir - leuko/neutron/thrombocytopenia

19

moa of resistane of ganciclovir

mutated viral kinase

20

moa of foscarnet

viral DNA/RNA polymerase inhibitor and HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor
binds to pyroFOSphaste binding site
NO ACTIVATION BY KINASE REQUIRED

21

what is foscarnet used for

CMV retinitins when ganciclovr doesn't work
acyclovir resistant HSV

22

toxo of foscarnet please

nephrotoxicity
electrolyte abnormalities: hypo/hyperCa AND hypo/hyperPO4 and hypoK and hypoMg
electorylte abnormalities can lead to seizures

23

MOA resistance foscarnet

mutated DNA plymerase

24

MOA cidofovir

preferentially inhibits viral DNA polymerase
DOES NTO REQUIRE PHOS BY KINASE

25

which two drugs for CMV do not require pi by kinase

foscarnet and cidofovir

26

what is the use of cidofovir

CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients
acyclovir restiant HSV

27

toxo of cidofover

nephrotoxocity

28

how to prevent nephrotoxicity of cidofovir

give with probenecid and IV saline to decrease nephrotoxicity of cidofovir

29

how to treat HIV

three drug regimen to prevent resistance
2 x NRTIs and 1 x of a) NNRTI, b) integrase inhibitor or c( protease inhibitors

30

list the protease inhibitors

NAVIRS
atazanavir
darunavir
fosamprenavir
indinavir
lopinavir
ritonavir
saduinavir

31

moa of preotease inhibitors

assumble of virions requires HIV-1 protease (pol gene) to cleave polypeptide of HIV mRNA into functional parts. so prevents maturation of new viruses

32

what makes ritonavir special?

inhibits P450 to boost other drug concentrations

33

common side effects of all protease inhibitors

hyperglycemia
lipodystrophy
nausea and diarrhoea

34

side effects of indinavir pelase

nephropathy
hematuria

35

proteas inhibitor that can cause nephropathy and hematuria please

indinavir

36

a/se: hyperglycemia, gi upset, lipodystrophy

protease inhibitors, the NAVIRs

37

what drug si contraindicated with protease inhibtitors and why

rifampin
CYP inducer so would decreased protease inhibitor concentration

38

please list the NRTIs

abacavir
didanosine
emtricitabine
lamicudine
stacudine
tenofocir
zidocudine (formerly azt)

39

how do NRTis work?

completely inhibit nucleotide binding to reverse transcriptase and terminate the DNA chian because they lack a 3'OH,

40

what NRTI is not a nucleoside

tenovofir - doesn't need to be phosphorylated to be active

41

what is the NRTI for use in pregos?

zidovudine/formerly known as azt

42

what is the NRTI used for general prophylaxis

zidovudine

43

a/se of all NRTIs pelase

bone marrow suppression
peripheral neurpahty

44

a/se unique to the NRTI nucleosides

lactic acidosis

45

what NRTI casues anaemia?

zidovudine

46

what NRTI causes pancreatitits

didanosine

47

how can you prevent some of the side effects of NRTIs

bone marrow suppression = give EPO and G-CSF

48

a/se of bone marrow suppression, peripheral neuropathy

NRTIs

49

a/se of lactic acidosis

metformin ;)
nucleoside NRTI (all but tenovofir)

50

a/se of pancreatitis

didanosine

51

a/se of anaemia

ziduvodine

52

please list the NNRTis

delavirdine
efavirenz
nevirapine

53

MOA of the NNRTIs please

bind to reverse transcriptase at site different from NRTIs
do nto require phosphyrlation to be active or to compete with nucletides

54

list the drugs that DO not require to be Pi in HIV treatment

tenovofir, an NRTI
all the NNRTIs (delavirdine, efacirnez, nevirapine)

55

what drugs for HIV are contraindicated in pregos

NNRTIs: delavirdine, efavirnez

56

what are the ase of the NNRTis

rash and hepatotoxicity (indinavir, a protease inhibitor cause hematuria and nephrotoxicity)

57

a/se of efavirenz

vivid dreams and CNS symptoms

58

a/se rash and hepatotoxicity

NNRTIsL delavirdine, efavirenz, nevirapine

59

a/se of vivid dreams and CNS symptoms

efavirenz

60

list the integrase inhibitors

raltegravir

61

MOA fo raltegravir

inhibits HIV genemoe integration into host cell chrom by reversibly inhibiting HIV integrase

62

a/se of ratelgrivir

increases creatine kinase

63

a/se of increased creatine kinase

raltegrivir, the integrase inhibitor

64

list the fusion inhibitors pelase

enfuvirtide
maroviroc

65

moa of enfuvirtide

a fusion inhibitor
binds gp41 inhibiting viral entry

66

moa of maraviroc

binds CCR5 of t cells and monocytes
inhibits interaction with HIV's gp21

67

a/se of enfurvirtide

skin reaction at injection site

68

ts for chronic hepatitis B

IFNa

69

tx for chronic hepatitis C

IFNa
ribavirin
simeprevir
sofosbuvir

70

tx for Kaposi sarcoma

IFNa

71

tx for hairy cell leukemia

IFNa

72

tx for condyloma acuminatum

IFNa

73

tx for renal cell carcinoma

IFNa

74

tx for malignant melaonma

IFNa

75

tx for multiple sclerosis

IFNb

76

tx for chronic granulomatous disease

IFNg

77

toxos of interferones please

neutropenia
myopathy

78

a/se of neutropenia and myopathy

interferons

79

what are the drugs used for hep C tx?

ribavirin
simeprevir
sofosbuvir

80

moa of ribavirin please

inhibits synth of guanine nucleotides by competitively inhibiting INOSINE MONOPI DEHYDROGENASE

81

what is ribavirin used for

hep C and RSC

82

what is DOC in children for RSV

palivizumba (ribavirin)

83

what is toxicity of ribavirin

hemolytic aneamia
severe teratogen

84

what is the moa of simeprevir

HCV protease inhibitor
prevents viral replication

85

what are uses of simpervir

HCV with ribavirin and pegIFNa

86

what are toxos of simeprevir

rash and photosensitivity

87

anti virals that can give a rash

simeprevir and NNRTis

88

what is the moa of sofosbuvir

inhibits HCV RNA dependent RNA polymerase
chain terminator

89

what is cxl use of sofosbuvir

chronic HSV in combo with ribavirin and or not with peginterdreon

90

what are the toxocs of sofosbuvir

fatigue, headache nausea

91

toxos of hemolytic anaemia, and teratogen

ribavirin

92

toxos of rahs and photosensitivity

simeprevir

93

toxos fo fatigue, headache, nausea

sofosbuvir

94

what anti virals can cause nephrotoxicity

acyclovir/famciclovir, valacyclovir
canciclovir
foscarnetcidofovir
NRTIs

95

what anti virals affect blood cells

galnciclovir: leuko/thromboy/neutron penias
NRTIs: bone marrow suppression
ribavirin: hemolytic anaemia

96

what do ganciclovir, NRTIs and ribavirin all have in common

cause side effects involving blood cells.

97

what type of infection control techniques for enveloped viruses

alcohols and chlorhexidine - denaturs proteins and disrupts cell membranes

98

what infection control techniques for spores

hydrogen peroxis - free radial oxidation

99

what am I? delavirdine

NNRTi

100

what am I? stavudine

NRTI

101

what am I? enfuvirtide

fusion inhibitor

102

what am I? efavirenz

NNRTI

103

what am I? sofosbuvir

hep C treatment

104

what am I? nevirapine

NNRTI

105

what infection control techniaues MIGHT be sporicidal

autoclave and iodine/iodophores

106

a/se in pregos: kernicterus

sulfonamides

107

a/se in pregos: ototoxicity

aminoglycosides

108

a/se in pregos: cartilage damage

fluoroquinolones

109

a/se in pregos: embryotocix

chlarithromycin

110

a/se in pregos: discolored teeth, inhibition of bone growth

tetracyclines

111

a/se in pregos: teratogenic x two

ribavirin
griseofulvin

112

a/se in pregos: gray baby syndrome

chloramphenicol

113

a/se in pregos: sulfonamides

kernicterus

114

a/se in pregos: aminoglycosides

ototoxicity

115

a/se in pregos: ribavirin

teratogen

116

a/se in pregos: griseofulvin

a/se in pregos:

117

a/se in pregos: tetracyclines

discoloured teeth and bone growth inhibition

118

a/se in pregos: fluroquinolones

cartilage damage

119

a/se in pregos: clarithromycin

embryotoxic

120

a/se in pregos: chloramphenicol

gray baby syndrome