Antidepressants Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Pharmacology > Antidepressants > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antidepressants Deck (37):
1

what is the monoamine / biogenic amine hypothesis of depression?

deficiency in levels of serotonin, NE, and DA neurotransmission in the synapse

2

what is the neurotropic hypothesis of depression?

changes in nerve growth factor signaling play a role in cell survival and synaptic plasticity

3

what is the MOA of TCAs?

1. block reuptake of both 5HT and NE by inhibition of SERT and NET respectively
2. desensitize presynaptic autoreceptors, further promotes release of 5HT and NE
3. reduce central beta adrenergic receptor responsiveness and density

4

what are the clinical uses of TCAs?

chronic pain, major depression, phobic and panic anxiety states, OCD

5

what is the side effect profile of TCAs?

1. cardiac arrhythmias
2. overdose - convulsions, coma

6

what is the MOA of MAOIs?

increase synaptic availability of NE and 5HT by blocking catabolism via inhibition of MAO enzymes

7

what are the clinical uses of MAOIs?

1. treatment resistant MDD patients
2. atypical depressions
3. anxiety states (social, panic)

8

what is the side effect profile of MAOIs?

orthostatic hypotension and weight gain

9

what is the MOA of SSRIs?

selectively inhibits SERT and blocks reuptake of 5HT into presynaptic terminal - increases synaptic 5HT

10

what are the clinical uses of SSRIs?

major depression and other psychiatric disorders

11

what is the short term side effect profile of SSRIs? long term?

short term - nausea, GI upset, diarrhea

long term - sexual dysfunction

12

what are the atypical antidepressant classes?

SNRIs, 5HT antagonists, alpha blockers, DA/NE uptake blockers

13

what is the MOA of lithium?

1. prevents recycling of inositol phosphate (mood dampening)
2. inhibits release of NE (prevents mania)

14

what are the clinical uses of lithium?

bipolar disorder - manic and depressive phases

15

what is the side effect profile of lithium?

tremor, hypothyroidism, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, skin reactions

16

what are the MAOI drugs?

1. phenelzine
2. tranylcypromine
3. selegiline

17

what is the MOA for phenelzine and tranylcypromine?

irreversible non-selective inhibition of both MAOIs (A and B)

18

what is the MOA for selegiline at low dose? high dose?

low dose - irreversible MAO-B inhibitor

high dose - non-selective MAOI

19

what is the clinical use of selegiline at low dose? high dose?

low dose - Parkinson's disease

high dose - antidepressant

20

what food interaction is important to consider for MAOIs? what is the adverse effect of interaction? what is the MOA?

1. tyramine
2. hypertensive crisis - triggers release of catecholamines into synapse

21

TCAs are potent antagonists of which receptor types?

cholinergic, histaminergic, alpha adrenergic

22

what are the TCA drugs?

imipramine, desipramine, amitriptyline

23

what is the main clinical use of imipramine?

1. bed wetting
2. TCA

24

what is the main clinical use of desipramine? what class of drug is this?

1. neuropathic pain
2. TCA

25

what is the main clinical use of amitriptyline?

1. sedation
2. TCA

26

what are the SSRI drugs?

1. fluoxetine
2. sertraline
3. paroxetine
4. citalopram
5. escitalopram
6. fluvoxamine

27

how does the SSRI MOA differ from the TCA MOA?

SSRIs are selective

28

what is serotonin syndrome? what are the symptoms? if untreated?

rare side effect of combining SSRIs with other SSRIs, MAOIs, TCAs

lethargy, restlessness, mental confusion

if untreated - hypertension, hyperthermia, hypertonicity, renal failure, death

29

what are the SNRI drugs?

venlafaxine and duloxetine

30

what is the MOA of SNRIs?

inhibit serotonin (SERT) and NE (NET) transporters

31

what is the 5HT antagonist drug?

trazodone

32

what is the MOA of trazodone? what is the effect?

blocks 5HT (and H1) receptor - sedative but without tolerance or dependence

33

what is the major side effect of trazodone?

priapism

34

what is the MOA of bupropion?

blocks NE and DA reuptake and increases presynaptic release of catecholamines

35

what are the side effects of SNRIs?

similar to TCAs but not as severe

GI, sexual dysfunction, weight gain (serotonergic)
increased BP and HR (noradrenergic)

36

SSRIs should never be combined with what other drug class? what are the results?

TCAs - serotonin syndrome and TCA toxicity

37

what are the important drug interactions with lithium? why?

thiazide and loop diuretics - diminishes lithium clearance

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