Antibiotics IIa Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Pharmacology > Antibiotics IIa > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antibiotics IIa Deck (63):
1

penecillins target what bacterial cell component / process?

cell wall synthesis

2

cephalosporins target what bacterial cell component?

cell wall synthesis

3

monobactams target what bacterial cell component / process?

cell wall synthesis

4

glycopeptides target what bacterial cell component / process?

cell wall synthesis

5

polypeptides target what bacterial cell component / process?

cell wall synthesis

6

carbapenems target what bacterial cell component / process?

cell wall synthesis

7

phosphoenolpyruvates target what bacterial cell component / process?

cell wall synthesis

8

lipopeptides target what bacterial cell component / process?

cell membrane

9

detergents target what bacterial cell component / process?

cell membrane

10

tetracyclines target what bacterial cell component / process?

protein synthesis

11

aminoglycosides target what bacterial cell component / process?

protein synthesis

12

macrolides target what bacterial cell component / process?

protein synthesis

13

sulfonamides target what bacterial cell component / process?

folate synthesis inhibitors / gyrase inhibitors / DNA damage

14

what are important enzymes in bacterial cell wall building process?

peptidoglycan binding proteins

15

what is the function of the PBPs?

create bond between NAM-NAG peptidoglycan monomers and NAM-NAG chains

16

what are the beta lactam compounds?

penicillins
cephalosporins
monobactams
carbapentems

17

what is the MOA of beta lactam compounds?

bind to and inhibit the PBP enzymes

18

what is the main adverse effect of beta lactam compounds?

hypersensitivity

19

more severe hypersensitivity to beta lactam abx would contraindicate use of what other abx?

....beta lactams

20

penicillin G and V are narrow or broad spectrum?

narrow

21

ampicillin and amoxicillin are narrow or broad spectrum?

broad

22

what is the role of clavulanic acid? what is the clinical use?

beta lactamase inhibitor

given in combination with penicillins to increase efficacy

23

what is the MOA for cephalosporins?

bind to and inhibit PBPs

24

what is the main adverse effect of cephalosporins?

hypersensitivity

25

increasing generations of cephalosporins have narrower or broader spectrum?

broader

26

what class of bacteria represent the narrowest spectrum for cephalosporins?

gram positive cocci

27

which spectrum of cephalosporins give good CNS penetration?

broader (3rd and 4th generations)

28

what are the 3rd generation cephalosporins?

ceftriaxone
cefotaxamine
cefdinir
cefixime

29

what is the 4th generation cephalosporin?

cefepime

30

what is the MOA of monobactams?

bind to and inhibit PBPs

31

what is the main adverse reaction for monobactams?

hypersensitivity (not a big risk of anaphylaxis)

32

what is an important feature of the monobactams?

penetration into CSF

33

what is the MOA of carbapentems?

bind to and inhibit PBPs

34

which beta lactam group of abx is beta lactamase resistant?

carbapentems

35

what is the key adverse effect of carbapentems?

GI - nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

36

what are the carbapentem compounds?

doripenem
imipenem
ertapenem
meropenem

37

what is problematic about imipenem? what is used to counteract this problem?

inactivated in the kidney

cilistatin is coadministered to prevent inactivation

38

what are the three drugs to be considered against MRSA?

vancomycin

39

vancomycin is what type of abx?

glycopeptide

40

what is the tissue penetration profile of vancomycin?

good tissue penetration EXCEPT CNS

41

what is the MOA of vancomycin?

prevents elongation of the peptidoglycan call wall by binding to the D-ala-D-ala pentapeptide and acts as steric inhibitor

42

what is the main adverse effect of vancomycin?

flushing (red neck or "red man syndrome")

think skin

43

what is the MOA of bacitracin?

blocks incorporation of amino acids and nucleic acids into cell wall

44

what is the main clinical use for fosfomycin?

UTIs in females

45

what is the MOA of fosfomycin?

blocks an early step in cell wall synthesis by preventing synthesis of UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid

46

bacitracin is commonly found in what type of preparations?

topical

47

which two abx block early steps of cell wall synthesis?

fosfomycin
bacitracin

48

inhibiting protein synthesis is generally bactericidal or bacteristatic?

bacteristatic

49

what is the general MOA of the protein synthesis inhibitors?

disrupt translation by targeting 50S, 30S subunits needed to translate bacterial mRNA

50

what is the MOA of the aminoglycosides?

bind to 30S subunit and blocks initiation of step 1

51

streptomycin, gentamycin, kanamycin, amikacin, tobramycin, and neomycin are what class of abx?

aminoglycosides

52

what class of abx are used in combination with beta lactam abx to treat serious gram negative infections?

aminoglycosides

53

what class of abx are used in combination with aminoglycoside abx to treat serious gram negative infections?

beta lactams

54

what are the key adverse effects of aminoglycosides?

nephrotoxic
ototoxic

55

erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin are what class of abx?

macrolides

56

what is the MOA of the macrolides?

binds the 50S subunit and impairs translocation to the P site (step 4)

57

what are the key adverse effects of the macrolides?

GI - cramps, nausea, vomiting

58

what abx are agonists of the motilin receptor in the GI tract?

macrolides

59

what is the MOA of tetracyclines?

binds to the 30S subunit and prevents binding of new aminoacyl-tRNA to A site (step 2)

60

what are the key adverse effects of tetracyclines?

nutrient interaction - binds calcium, resulting in growth of calcified tissue - discoloration (bone, teeth)

ecological effects - disrupt normal flora

photosensitivity (skin)

61

what is a contraindication for tetracycline use?

development (children, pregnant women)

62

what is the MOA of clindamycin?

binds 50S subunit and prevents formation of initiation complexes (step 1) and translocation to P site similar to macrolides (step 4)

63

what are the key adverse effects of clindamycin?

GI

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