Toxicology I Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Pharmacology > Toxicology I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Toxicology I Deck (33):
1

what is the primary determinant of toxicity?

dose

2

what is the secondary determinant of toxicity?

time present in body

3

definition: LD50

dose at which 50% of test animals die / 50% of people have toxicity

4

a poison typically has what LD value?

less than or equal to 50 mg / kg body weight

5

definition: therapeutic index

how is it interpreted?

LD50 / ED50

the larger the number, the safer the drug

6

what are two general antidotes that can be given to treat unconscious patients upon presentation at the hospital?

glucose
naloxone

7

what are toxidromes? what is their use?

known toxicology standards

used to compare drug or chemical response

8

which lab test can be performed in under 2 hours for drug identification?

urine

9

what are the urine drug tests?

immunoassay
TLC

10

what are the urine/blood tests for quantitative drug identification?

HPLC
GCMS

11

what are the emesis inducer agents?

apomorphine
ipecac

12

activated charcoal should be administered within what time frame?

30 minutes

13

what is the clinical use for pralidoxime?

organophosphate poisoning

14

what agent is used as an antidote for organophosphate poisoning?

pralidoxime

15

pralidoxime is usually coadministered with what other agent?

atropine

16

what are the chelation antidotes?

pralidoxime
amyl nitrite

17

what is the antidote therapy for cyanide poisoning?

amyl nitrite
sodium nitrite
sodium thiosulfate with O2

18

what is the clinical use for amyl nitrite?

cyanide poisoning

19

what is the treatment for botulism toxin poisoning?

trivalent antitoxin

20

what is the treatment for heavy metal poisoning?

chelation

21

what is BAL? what is it used for?

british anti-lewisite, demercaprol

chelation therapy for heavy metal poisoning

22

what chemical moiety is usually present in heavy metal chelators?

disulfide bridges

23

what is the therapeutic use for DMSA?

treatment of arsenic, mercury, lead poisoning

24

what agent is used for treatment of arsenic, mercury, lead poisoning?

DMSA

25

what is the therapeutic use for trivalent antitoxin?

botulism A, B, E

26

what is the order of administration for antidotes in cyanide poisoning?

amyl nitrite
sodium nitrite
sodium thiosulfate

27

methanol is converted into formaldehyde and formic acid by what enzyme?

alcohol dehydrogenase

28

alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzes what reaction?

alcohol (ethanol / methanol) to acetaldehyde

29

what drugs can be used to treat methanol poisoning?

ethanol

30

fomepizole blocks what enzyme? what is the result?

alcohol dehydrogenase

prevents production of toxic metabolites

31

what is the treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning?

artificial respiration with pure O2 to promote displacement of CO, hyperbaric oxygen chamber if symptomatic

32

cherry red lips / gums are indicative of toxicity of what substance?

CO

33

what is the main physical symptomology of CO poisoning?

cherry red lips / gums

Decks in Year 2 Pharmacology Class (70):