Flashcards in Toxicology I Deck (33):
what is the primary determinant of toxicity?
what is the secondary determinant of toxicity?
time present in body
dose at which 50% of test animals die / 50% of people have toxicity
a poison typically has what LD value?
less than or equal to 50 mg / kg body weight
definition: therapeutic index
how is it interpreted?
LD50 / ED50
the larger the number, the safer the drug
what are two general antidotes that can be given to treat unconscious patients upon presentation at the hospital?
what are toxidromes? what is their use?
known toxicology standards
used to compare drug or chemical response
which lab test can be performed in under 2 hours for drug identification?
what are the urine drug tests?
what are the urine/blood tests for quantitative drug identification?
what are the emesis inducer agents?
activated charcoal should be administered within what time frame?
what is the clinical use for pralidoxime?
what agent is used as an antidote for organophosphate poisoning?
pralidoxime is usually coadministered with what other agent?
what are the chelation antidotes?
what is the antidote therapy for cyanide poisoning?
sodium thiosulfate with O2
what is the clinical use for amyl nitrite?
what is the treatment for botulism toxin poisoning?
what is the treatment for heavy metal poisoning?
what is BAL? what is it used for?
british anti-lewisite, demercaprol
chelation therapy for heavy metal poisoning
what chemical moiety is usually present in heavy metal chelators?
what is the therapeutic use for DMSA?
treatment of arsenic, mercury, lead poisoning
what agent is used for treatment of arsenic, mercury, lead poisoning?
what is the therapeutic use for trivalent antitoxin?
botulism A, B, E
what is the order of administration for antidotes in cyanide poisoning?
methanol is converted into formaldehyde and formic acid by what enzyme?
alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzes what reaction?
alcohol (ethanol / methanol) to acetaldehyde
what drugs can be used to treat methanol poisoning?
fomepizole blocks what enzyme? what is the result?
prevents production of toxic metabolites
what is the treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning?
artificial respiration with pure O2 to promote displacement of CO, hyperbaric oxygen chamber if symptomatic
cherry red lips / gums are indicative of toxicity of what substance?