Flashcards in Drugs of abuse II Deck (21):
what are the most commonly abused benzodiazepines?
what are the 'date rape' drugs?
what is the role of flumazenil? what is the clinical use?
benzodiazepine receptor antagonist
overdose, reversal of anesthesia
what is the common name of methylphenidate?
what is the relative risk of addiction for psychostimulants?
5 (scale 0-5)
what are the sympathomimetic effects of amphetamines?
what is the MOA for psychostimulants?
taken up into DA and NE terminals
cause vesicle release of DA and NE
reverse DA transporter - increased release of DA
what is the MOA of MDMA?
interferes with SERT to release 5-HT from presynaptic terminals
what is the acute toxicity of MDMA?
hyperthermia and dehydration
what is the relative risk of addiction score for psychedelics?
1 (scale 0-5)
what is the MOA of the psychedelics?
release glutamate in cortex via thalamic excitation
target 5-HT receptors - GPCRq - IP3 - increase calcium
what is the MOA of ketamine and PCP?
block NMDA type glutamate receptors
decrease activity of cortex and limbic system
what is the relative risk of addiction score for opioids?
4 (scale 0-5)
what is the MOA of opioids?
inhibit GABAergic neurons via activation of mu opioid receptors leading to disinhibition of the VTA DA neurons causing euphoria
inhibition of VTA DA neurons via activation of kappa opioid receptors (inhibitory) causing dysphoria
which mu opioid receptor antagonist is used primarily for maintenance therapy?
which mu opioid receptor antagonist is used for emergency overdose?
what is dronabinol?
synthetic THC approved for treatment of chronic pain
what is the relative risk of addiction score for cannabinoids?
2 (scale 0-5)
what is the MOA for cannabinoids?
THC disinhibits DA neurons in the VTA via presynaptic cannabinoid receptors - likely involves removing GABAa inhibition
what is the MOA of nicotine?
activation of nicotinic Ach receptors on VTA projections resulting in DA release in nucleus accumbens and PFC