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Year 2 Pharmacology > Drugs of abuse II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Drugs of abuse II Deck (21):
1

what are the most commonly abused benzodiazepines?

diazepam (valium)

alprazolam (xanax)

2

what are the 'date rape' drugs?

flunitrazepam (rohypnol)

GHB

3

what is the role of flumazenil? what is the clinical use?

benzodiazepine receptor antagonist

overdose, reversal of anesthesia

4

what is the common name of methylphenidate?

ritalin

5

what is the relative risk of addiction for psychostimulants?

5 (scale 0-5)

6

what are the sympathomimetic effects of amphetamines?

mydriasis
tachycardia
hypertension

7

what is the MOA for psychostimulants?

taken up into DA and NE terminals

cause vesicle release of DA and NE

reverse DA transporter - increased release of DA

8

what is the MOA of MDMA?

interferes with SERT to release 5-HT from presynaptic terminals

9

what is the acute toxicity of MDMA?

hyperthermia and dehydration

10

what is the relative risk of addiction score for psychedelics?

1 (scale 0-5)

11

what is the MOA of the psychedelics?

release glutamate in cortex via thalamic excitation

target 5-HT receptors - GPCRq - IP3 - increase calcium

12

what is the MOA of ketamine and PCP?

block NMDA type glutamate receptors

decrease activity of cortex and limbic system

13

what is the relative risk of addiction score for opioids?

4 (scale 0-5)

14

what is the MOA of opioids?

inhibit GABAergic neurons via activation of mu opioid receptors leading to disinhibition of the VTA DA neurons causing euphoria

inhibition of VTA DA neurons via activation of kappa opioid receptors (inhibitory) causing dysphoria

15

which mu opioid receptor antagonist is used primarily for maintenance therapy?

naltrexone

16

which mu opioid receptor antagonist is used for emergency overdose?

naloxone

17

what is dronabinol?

synthetic THC approved for treatment of chronic pain

18

what is the relative risk of addiction score for cannabinoids?

2 (scale 0-5)

19

what is the MOA for cannabinoids?

THC disinhibits DA neurons in the VTA via presynaptic cannabinoid receptors - likely involves removing GABAa inhibition

20

what is the MOA of nicotine?

activation of nicotinic Ach receptors on VTA projections resulting in DA release in nucleus accumbens and PFC

21

what are the two treatment options for nicotine?

bupropion - antidepressant

varenicline - high affinity nAchR agonist

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