Aquatic Ecology final Flashcards Preview

Biology > Aquatic Ecology final > Flashcards

Flashcards in Aquatic Ecology final Deck (324)
Loading flashcards...
271

mining and surface water quality

clearing, roads, waste rock, tailings, dust, living/operations
turbidity, metals, acid mine drainage

272

Industrial practices on surface water quality

wastewater effluent, contaminated sites, roads
turbidity, chemicals

273

Urbanization and surface water quality

sewage, water extraction, roads, pets, clearing
nutrients, chemicals, turbidity, pathogens

274

surface water quality is a measure of

parasites, bacteria, viruses, turbidity, nutrients, algal toxins, pH, hardness, alkalinity, natural organics, metals, hydrocarbons, chemicals

275

water treatments

no treatment
filtration
sedimentation
flocculation
chlorination
chloramination
ozonation
UV irrdiation

276

contamination in water distribution system (after treatment)

intrusion
regrowth
permeation
leaching

277

Intrusion, contamination in water distribution system

Pressure drop
faulty pipes/gaskets
cross-connections
unprotected tanks
contaminated soil/groundwater

278

regrowth, contamination in distribution system

distance from treatment plant
nutrient availability
regrowth conditions (biofilm)
regrowth in tanks/pipes

279

Permeation, contamination in distribution system

organic compounds
plastic pipes
elastomers

280

leaching, contamination in distribution system

piping material corrosion
pipe lines
tank lines/seals

281

flocculation

rocess wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake; either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent

282

airborne ammonia

72% of the variability in airborne ammonia explained by expansion of swine population
1988-1998: 0.1 - 0.4ppm

283

N:P ratios based on source

highest: runoff of unfertilized field
forest runoff
rainfall
manure seepage
sewage

284

controls on algal biomass and blooms

nutrients
seasonality of nutrient input
physical properties of receiving system
structure of the foodweb

285

% Total phytoplankton biomass vs. Lot TP (µg/L)

with an increase in TP shift to dominance of cyanobacteria (blue/green algae blooms)

286

Mycrostin concentration (µg/L)

linearly increasing with TP, Toxigenic biomass, and TN
-increase # of algae = increase # of toxin producing algae

287

major sources of P

septic, sewage, storm water, fertilizers

288

biomagnification of BMAA example

cyanobacteria-- cycad-- flying foxes -- Chamorro people
neuro-degenerative & hepato-degenerative disease

289

concentrations of BMAA biomagnified

cyano. 0.3µg/g
cycad 37µg/g
flying fox 3556µg/g
x10^2 per "trophic level"

290

Coagulation/flocculation

removes colloidal particles by adding coagulants

291

sedimentation

Floc settles down to the bottom

292

disinfection

kill bacteria and other organisms

293

filtration

remove particles through filters

294

disinfection byproducts

formed during treatment and disinfection

295

water treatment steps

source water--coagulation/flocculation-- sedimentation--filtration-- disinfection-- storage

296

Victoria water treatment

only disinfection (UV)

297

Increasing disinfection

increases disinfection byproducts, carcinogenic

298

Risk vs. Disinfection Level

Microbial curve is decreasing
DBPs curve is increasing
trade-off.. ideally in lower level of both risks

299

some DBPs

disinfection by-products
Chloroform
Chloroacetic acid
Chloro...
Formaldehyde
Acetone
Acetic acid
Benzoic acid

300

DBPs produced by

1. Chlorine (produces almost all, strongest disinfectant)
Ozone, ClO2, Chloramines