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Flashcards in Aquatic Ecology final Deck (324)
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151

Dam changes to soil

when water bodies are made, soils release heavy metals they have been holding into water

152

Colorado River, 1928

water treaty
7 states get 19km^3
Mexico 1.8km^3

153

Colorado River, 1930's

major water diversion to LA

154

Colorado River, 1935

Hoover Dam

155

Colorado River, 1960's

Glen Canyon Dam
[salt] exceeds 1.5g/L
ruins Mexico agriculture (collapse)

156

Response to Glen Canyon Dam - Mexican agriculture collapse

Yuma (Arizona) desalination plant
$1B/yr

157

Ground Water

give stability to ground
over draining creates space in ground
sinkage
drawdown water table
subsidence

158

Mexico City

built on a lakebed, elevation 2240m
Initially water flowed in and had to be diverted out

159

Changes in Mexico City

rapid growth (more than 20million)
Had to pump in water but had very poor infrastructure (holes in pipes)
subsidence 1m/yr
buildings tilting, roads, pipes moving

160

Canadian water

Great lakes: 240,000km^2
20+% of world FW
85% of NA water
45mill people in watershed (15mill Canada)

161

Canadian water export

policy unclear (provincial vs. federal)
NAFTA may require selling water to US
potential profit, damage degradation loss

162

Unclear water policy

freshwater is provincial jurisdiction
who can use water is federal - dept transportation, dept fisheries, dept fish&oceans

163

NAWAPA

North America Water and Power Alliance
potential water diversion: Rocky Mt trench -- Texas
from Mackenzie river valley
240 dams
nuclear power to pump it

164

GRAND Canal dam

Great Recycling and Northern Development channel
potentially divert from James Bay -- Great lakes

165

Dam/Diversion problems and education

political
economical
public education important
International co-operation
conservation
water re-use

166

Dam impacts, land inundation

mobilizes DOC & Hg to food web
Hg accumulation in fish
neuro-degenerative symptoms
loading to ocean (of water) is decreasing, may increase ocean salinity

167

MPA, IUCN definition

Any area of intertidal or subtotal domain, together with it's overlying water and associated flora, fauna, historical and cultural features, which has been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclose environment.

168

MPAs attempt to

protect sensitive habitat
conserve biodiv.
shelter vulnerable/endangered species
boost fisheries catch

169

IUCN

international union for conservation of nature

170

MPA coverage, now

less than 1% of worlds oceans

171

Newfoundland Cod, historically

fished from small dories, land lines
spawning ground far offshore (unreachable)- natural protection, refuge

172

dories

small, shallow-draft boat, 5 -7m, usually lightweight with high sides, flat bottom and sharp bows

173

Fishing technology

no natural fish refuges
very long range & time
targeting capability

174

Traditional fishery protection laws

species specific
i.e. Atlantic Cod

175

MPA, allowable

no ocean dumping or dredging
no exploration for or development of non-renewables
fishing/extraction permitted

176

fully protected MPA

"No-take zones"
"Areas of the ocean completely protected from all extractive and destructive activities"
no fishing, removal, dumping, dredging

177

Coverage of 'no-take' zones

less than 0.1% of the worlds ocean

178

Accidental MPA

Cape Canaveral
US gov't creates security zone around Cape C. satellite launch zone

179

MPA benefits

Increase/Enhance:
fish abundance
fish size/age
reproductive output
species diversity
habitat complexity
fishery yields in adjacent grounds
overall biomass increase

180

"Fishing the Edge"

fishing boats sitting right on edge of MPA