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Flashcards in Aquatic Ecology final Deck (324)
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241

dysentry

infection of the intestines resulting in severe diarrhea with the presence of blood and mucus in the feces

242

Water contamination

millions die worldwide/yr
rural/slums- high dysentry

243

amount of people in rural communities without access to safe water

77%
safe is in don't die from it

244

children under 5 that die from diarrhea in rural/slum communities, due to unsafe water

35/1000

245

Women and school, rural/slum communities

40% complete 3years
intense effort to collect water

246

Water contamination, Canada

many sick, 7 dead in Walkerton, Not
~1000 small communities on boil water advisories (all the time)

247

Water quality parameters of concern

pathogenic bacterie/protozoans (intestine disease)
excessive nutrients/algae (neuro/hepato toxins, carcinogenic byproducts)
harmful chemicals

248

anthropogenic harmful chemicals in drinking water

pesticides, herbicides, metals, antibiotics, pharma-care products
chemical/biological/microbial waste from agriculture, livestock, industry, households

249

why larger communities at lower risk of water contamination

adequate resources
expertise operator training and treatment
money
able to own and control entire watershed

250

example of dharma-care water contaminant, St. Lawrence Seaway

endocrine disrupters causing fish to not develop sex

251

Siem Reap River (cambodia), water contamination

throw waste into same small waterbody that is used for drinking

252

Bangladesh water crisis

well water becoming contaminated with arsenic from contaminated groundwater = ulcers, amputations, gangrene, carcinoma, pigmentation issues

253

Bangladesh water contamination, solution?

develop ponds to harvest rain water and use slow sand filters to clean water to entire village

254

BC water utilities

3500 registered systems
over 90% unfiltered, only chlorination
most small, rural systems
most have no control over environment/source quality
higher rate of enteric illness than rest of Canada

255

Canada boil water advisories

over 1000 communities
higher for aboriginal communities

256

enteric illness in BC, Ontario/Quesbec, Praries, Atlantic
rater per 100,000 vs time

All have decreased by ~50/100,000 from 1987-97
BC ~50/100,000 more than O/Q/P
BC ~100/100,000 more than Atlantic

257

distance from water treatment plant

the further away you are the more at risk you are, may need second treatment

258

economic returns from the biosphere

protecting/sustaining the environment lowers health costs

259

Land-use activities

agriculture
farming
waste disposal
pesticides/herbicides
harvesting
residential/industrial activities

260

Land-use activities cause loading of

pathogens
nutrients
metals/organics
humic compounds
pharmaceuticals

261

Surface/ground water protection and management must

Develop strategies to reduce loading
understand transport and fat of microbes and chemicals
Enhance community knowledge and understanding

262

Effects on/of water for public health

land-use activities
loading
quality of source
quality of output (tap)

263

Affect quality of source water

pathogens
algae
toxins
TOC/DOC
taste/odour
chemicals (drugs)

264

Natural process affecting water quality

small vs larger grazer system
recall: large fish = large grazers = smaller microorganisms (bacteria/algae/pathogens) which also = better water quality! (another problem of fishing down the food web?)

265

processes that affect surface water quality

wildlife
recreation
forestry
livestock
drylands farming
mining
industrial
urbanization
climate

266

Wildlife and surface water quality

beaver, otter, rabbit, ungulates, waterfowl
Protistan parasites

267

Recreation and water quality

boating, ATVs, hiking, camping, pets, cottages, skiing
sediments, pathogens, hydrocarbons, herbicides

268

Forestry and surface water quality

roads, clear cutting, camps, storage areas, stream crossings, slash burning
microbes, turbidity, organic loading

269

livestock operations and surface water quality

clearing, manure, feedlot, recreation, soil erosion
microbes, nutrients, turbidity

270

drylands farming and surface water quality

clearing, pest/weed management, soil erosion
pesticide, herbicide, turbidity, salt