Physiological pH of the body
7.35 - 7.45
Metabolic Acidosis is...
the production of excess H+ by the body due to disease i.e. lactic acidosis, renal failure, sepsis
Potential causes of metabolic acidosis
Key features of metabolic acidosis
- reduced pH
- Tachypnoea with a reduced CO2
- A reduced HCO3 (used up by H+)
What is Respiratory Acidosis?
An accumulation of CO2 due to disease of the lungs
The kidneys attempt to counteract this by accumulating bicarbonate
Causes of respiratory acidosis
Type 2 respiratory failure
Which conditions may present as respiratory acidosis when nearing exhaustion and respiratory arrest?
Key features of Respiratory Acidosis
Little or no change in bicarbonate
Where might raised bicarbonate be seen in respiratory acidosis?
COPD where there is chronic acidosis
Metabolic Alkalosis is...
a net loss of acid from the body
Causes of metabolic alkalosis
Ingestion of base
To counteract a surplus of alkali, the body tries to hold onto acid by _______ and retaining CO2
Key features of metabolic alkalosis
marginal increase in CO2
(relatively poor compensation mechanism)
Respiratory Alkalosis is...
a lack of acid because of the loss of CO2. This occurs as a result of hyperventilation
Causes of respiratory alkalosis
Key features of Respiratory Alkalosis
Little change in HCO3
What is Base Excess?
The amount of strong base which would need to be added or subtracted from a substance in order to return the pH to normal