Formative Assessment Pointers Week 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Formative Assessment Pointers Week 3 Deck (54):
1

Specialised cells in the nasal cavity involved in smell and taste

Olfactory epithelial cell

2

Squamous epithelial cells found in the alveolar sac.

Type I pneumocyte

3

The cells of the pulmonary capillaries which contribute to the blood-air barrier.

endothelial cell

4

A small area of infection at the periphery of the mid-zone of the lung, seen in tuberculosis

Ghon Focus

5

Often opportunistic, these organisms tend to affect immunocompromised patients and are usually caused by inhaled spores or reactivation of latent disease

Fungal Infection

6

A lung mass that may mimic a tumour, created in an attempt to wall off a pathogen or foreign body. Involves macrophages and may have a necrotic core

Granuloma

7

Provides motor innervation to the intercostal muscles and anterolateral abdominal wall muscles

Intercostal nerves

8

Provides motor innervation to the soft palate and intrinsic laryngeal muscles

Vagus Nerve CN X

9

Stimulation triggers a reflex cough response

Glossopharyngeal nerve CN XI and vagus nerve CN X

10

The stage of lung maturation that takes place between 6-16 weeks' gestation. It involves the development of multiple branches of the bronchial tree down to the level of the terminal bronchioles.

Pseudoglandular

11

The stage of lung maturation that takes place between 26 days' and 6 weeks' gestation. It involves the first stages of lung development, and sees the formation of the lungs' lobes and segments

Embryonic

12

The germ layer that forms the cartilage and smooth muscle in the thorax.

Visceral Mesoderm

13

The structure that is seen to develop by 28 days' gestation, found inferior to the trachea.

Bronchial Buds

14

The stage of lung maturation that takes place between 36 weeks' gestation and early childhood and involves further maturation of the alveoli.

Alveolar

15

Widespread infection throughout the lung, seen where the organism has spread via the bloodstream

Miliary TB

16

A focus of infection with a fibrous wall, making antibiotic treatment difficult

Lung Abscess

17

A lung mass that is a primary pulmonary condition that can cause systemic effects and B symptoms, and can metastasise

Bronchial Carcinoma

18

Provides motor innervation to the diaphragm

Phrenic Nerves

19

Innervate the abdominal wall with somatic sensory, somatic motor and sympathetic nerve supply

Thoracoabdominal nerves

20

A phagocytic cell that migrates up the bronchial tree and is eventually swallowed. Also known as a dust cell.

Alveolar macrophage

21

The majority cell type lining the terminal bronchioles.

Cuboidal epithelial cell

22

An immunologically active cell recruited to the lungs in the later stages of inflammation

Lymphocyte

23

An infection affecting the distal airspaces, usually accompanies by an inflammatory exudate causing consolidation

Pneumonia

24

Fixed dilatation of the bronchi, usually as a result of scarring or distal to a chronic obstruction. Causes the accumulation of purulent secretions

Bronchiectasis

25

A collection of pus in the pleural space, which can be seen on a chest X-ray as a D-shaped abnormality

Empyema

26

The initial stage in tumour development where cells gross appearance and histological findings are altered but there is no malignancy

sqaumous metaplasia

27

A tumour which produces keratin pearls, and may produce thyroid transcription factor.

Squamous carcinoma

28

A lung cancer which is only treated by chemotherapy but may become rapidly resistant to treatment.

Small cell lung cancer

29

A mucus-producing cell found within respiratory epithelium.

Goblet cell

30

A non-ciliated cell found in terminal bronchioles. Acts as an immune modulator and stem cell and is able to produce surfactant

Clara cell

31

A polygonal cell that releases surfactant from lamellar bodies within its cytoplasm

type 2 pneumocyte

32

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with very few goblet cells. No cartilage. Lamina propria of smooth muscle and elastic and collagenous fibres

Bronchioles

33

Non-keratinised stratified squamous epithelium

Oropharynx

34

Keratinised stratified squamous epithelium.

Nasal Cavity

35

The germ layer that forms the lining of the trachea and bronchial tree.

Endoderm

36

The structure that develops on the anterior foregut and is the first respiratory structure to develop.

Respiratory Diverticulum

37

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and goblet cells. Incomplete cartilage rings. Basal lamina. Lamina propria of connective tissue and elastic fibres. Submucosa of loose connective tissue and subserous glands

trachea

38

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and goblet cells covering cartilage and intrinsic muscles.

Larynx excluding the vocal cords

39

Stratified squamous epithelium surrounded by respiratory epithelium

Vocal Folds

40

An 18 year old man is admitted with sudden onset shortness of breath and is complaining of right-sided chest pain. On examination he is tachycardic, tachypnoeic and hypertensive. His right side is hyperresonant when percussed. His PA chest X-ray shows a line parallel to the right chest wall.

Right sided tension pneumothorax

41

A 60 year old woman is admitted to hospital by her GP. She has been unwell for the past few days and has not responded to the GP's initial treatment. On examination she is tachycardic, tachypnoeic, pyrexial and mildly hypertensive. On percussion her right middle zone is dull. Her PA chest X-ray shows loss of the right heart border.

Right middle lobe pneumonia

42

A 20 year old male patient complains of shortness of breath. On PA chest X-ray his right horizontal fissure is displaced. There is an opacity in his upper right zone

Right upper lobe collapse

43

Stimulation triggers a reflex sneeze response

Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) and trigeminal nerve (CN V)

44

Provides sensory innervation to the nasal mucosa and motor innervation to the soft palate

Trigeminal nerve

45

Spreads along alveolar walls before becoming a truly invasive adenocarcinoma

Bronchoalveolar carcinoma

46

A malignant tumour which produces mucin, and glands may be visible on histology

Adenocarcinoma

47

The final stage in tumour development before becoming malignant.

Carcinoma in situ

48

A patient is admitted with pyrexia, dyspnoea and a productive cough. On chest X-ray, the left heart border is obscured.

Lingular pneumonia

49

A 20 year old male patient complains of shortness of breath. On chest X-ray his left oblique fissure is displaced, and the medial left hemidiaphragm is obscured.

Left lower lobe collapse

50

A 20 year old male patient complains of shortness of breath. On lateral chest X-ray his oblique fissure seems to be very anterior, and on PA chest X-ray his left heart border is obscured and there is a veil-like opacity.

Left upper lobe collapse

51

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and goblet cells with hyaline cartilage rings and cartilage plates

Main bronchi

52

A patient is admitted with pyrexia, dyspnoea and a productive cough. On chest X-ray, the left heart border is obscured

Lingular pneumonia

53

A 20 year old male patient complains of shortness of breath. On chest X-ray his left oblique fissure is displaced, and the medial left hemidiaphragm is obscured

Left Lower Lobe Collapse

54

A 20 year old male patient complains of shortness of breath. On lateral chest X-ray his oblique fissure seems to be very anterior, and on PA chest X-ray his left heart border is obscured and there is a veil-like opacity.

Left upper lobe collapse