Formative Assessment Pointers Week 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Formative Assessment Pointers Week 2 Deck (35)
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Normal expiration

Is a passive process, controlled by the gaps in firing of dorsal neurons within the medulla


Forceful expiration

Is an active process, controlled by the firing of ventral neurons in the medulla


Normal inspiration

Is an active process, controlled by the firing of dorsal neurons within the medulla



A methylxanthine drug with bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory action. Has many side effects and drug interactions.



A competitive H1 receptor antagonist used to treat allergic rhinitis.



A short acting drug that blocks acetylcholine receptors non-selectively. Can be delivered intranasally to treat rhinorrhoea.



An anticholinergic drug, selective for M3 receptors with a long half life.



A cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist used to treat asthma and allergice rhinitis.



An inhaled corticosteroid. Used in combination with a beta-2 adrenoceptor agonist, particularly in frequent exacerbations of COPD.


Equals inspiratory reserve volume plus tidal volume plus expiratory reserve volume.

Vital Capacity


The volume of air in the lungs at the end of a normal, passive expiration

Functional Residual Capacity


A 59 year old man presents to his GP with a cough that he has been suffering from for at least six months. He tells you he brings up clear phlegm daily, but that it has occasionally been green and unpleasant when he gets a cold. He has come in today because he heard that long term coughs should be checked by a doctor. He smokes approximately 40 cigarettes a day, and has been smoking for over 30 years. He is much more breathless when walking around than he used to be.

Chronic Bronchitis


A 78 year old woman is admitted to hospital short of breath. She feels that even sitting talking to you is too much effort, and she is struggling to get up to the bathroom without help. She is generally unwell, with a temperature of 38.2, but no other investigations have been returned yet. She has a 50 pack-year smoking history. She has a cough, which she says is normal for her, but she is bringing up thick yellow sputum, which she does not normally. She takes regular inhaled medicines, but feels these are not helping her as they usually do.

Acute Exacerbation of COPD


A 35 year old woman visits her GP complaining of shortness of breath. She finds she feels her chest is tight and that she is struggling to breathe. This mostly affects her at home, and tends not to be as bad any other time. She is coughing at night, but this is non-productive. On examination she has a generalised wheeze, but no other abnormal findings. When you are discussing your thoughts, she mentions that her and her partner recently bought a kitten, and wonders if this is the cause of her problem.

Extrinsic Asthma


These chemoreceptors detect arterial oxygen partial pressure. When stimulated, they cause hyperventilation and increased cardiac output.

Peripheral Chemoreceptors


These chemoreceptors are found in the brainstem. They respond to CSF [H+].

Central Chemoreceptors in the Medulla


These chemoreceptors, when stimulated, can compensate for metabolic acidosis by triggering increased elimination of CO2

Peripheral Chemoreceptors


Chronic adaptation caused by hypoxia

Increased mitochondria, 2,3-BPG, capillaries and polycythaemia with a metabolic acidosis


Acute mountain sickness

Fatigue, headache, tachycardia, dizziness and shortness of breath, slipping into unconsciousness


Diabetic ketoacidosis

Hyperventilation with a severe metabolic acidosis.


An 18 year old man is admitted to hospital acutely short of breath. He cannot speak in full sentences and is audibly wheezing. He has been given a beta-2 adrenoceptor agonist and steroids, and his doctor wishes to give him a further inhaled drug

Nebulised ipratropium


A 68 year old man with long-standing COPD has been prescribed several medications. However, he is struggling to cope at home, and when he is examined you see is SaO2 is 82%.

Domicilary oxygen


A 22 year old woman has been using a reliever inhaler for some time, but is finding she is now wheezing and feels more breathless when she exercises.

Inhaled beclometasone


Results in increased pulmonary compliance, produces hyperinflated lungs and will show an obstructive defect on spirometry



Causes shortness of breath on exertion, a restrictive defect on spirometry and reduced pulmonary compliance but no sign of infection.

Pulmonary Fibrosis


Will show a low FVC, a low FEV1 and a low FEV1/FVC% on spirometry

Combined Restrictive-Obstructive Lung Disease



A PDE4 inhibitor given orally for severe COPD


Sodium cromoglicate

Mast cell stabiliser used in asthma and allergic rhinitis



An oral steroid used in severe or intractable rhinitis, acute asthma or an exacerbation of COPD


A 25 year old woman visits her GP. She is normally fit and well, but has been finding running increasingly difficult, particularly when it is cold. She complains of feeling short of breath and wheezing. There are no abnormal findings on examination and no significant past medical history

Intrinsic Asthma