Flashcards in Formative Assessment Pointers Week 2 Deck (35)
Is a passive process, controlled by the gaps in firing of dorsal neurons within the medulla
Is an active process, controlled by the firing of ventral neurons in the medulla
Is an active process, controlled by the firing of dorsal neurons within the medulla
A methylxanthine drug with bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory action. Has many side effects and drug interactions.
A competitive H1 receptor antagonist used to treat allergic rhinitis.
A short acting drug that blocks acetylcholine receptors non-selectively. Can be delivered intranasally to treat rhinorrhoea.
An anticholinergic drug, selective for M3 receptors with a long half life.
A cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist used to treat asthma and allergice rhinitis.
An inhaled corticosteroid. Used in combination with a beta-2 adrenoceptor agonist, particularly in frequent exacerbations of COPD.
Equals inspiratory reserve volume plus tidal volume plus expiratory reserve volume.
The volume of air in the lungs at the end of a normal, passive expiration
Functional Residual Capacity
A 59 year old man presents to his GP with a cough that he has been suffering from for at least six months. He tells you he brings up clear phlegm daily, but that it has occasionally been green and unpleasant when he gets a cold. He has come in today because he heard that long term coughs should be checked by a doctor. He smokes approximately 40 cigarettes a day, and has been smoking for over 30 years. He is much more breathless when walking around than he used to be.
A 78 year old woman is admitted to hospital short of breath. She feels that even sitting talking to you is too much effort, and she is struggling to get up to the bathroom without help. She is generally unwell, with a temperature of 38.2, but no other investigations have been returned yet. She has a 50 pack-year smoking history. She has a cough, which she says is normal for her, but she is bringing up thick yellow sputum, which she does not normally. She takes regular inhaled medicines, but feels these are not helping her as they usually do.
Acute Exacerbation of COPD
A 35 year old woman visits her GP complaining of shortness of breath. She finds she feels her chest is tight and that she is struggling to breathe. This mostly affects her at home, and tends not to be as bad any other time. She is coughing at night, but this is non-productive. On examination she has a generalised wheeze, but no other abnormal findings. When you are discussing your thoughts, she mentions that her and her partner recently bought a kitten, and wonders if this is the cause of her problem.
These chemoreceptors detect arterial oxygen partial pressure. When stimulated, they cause hyperventilation and increased cardiac output.
These chemoreceptors are found in the brainstem. They respond to CSF [H+].
Central Chemoreceptors in the Medulla
These chemoreceptors, when stimulated, can compensate for metabolic acidosis by triggering increased elimination of CO2
Chronic adaptation caused by hypoxia
Increased mitochondria, 2,3-BPG, capillaries and polycythaemia with a metabolic acidosis
Acute mountain sickness
Fatigue, headache, tachycardia, dizziness and shortness of breath, slipping into unconsciousness
Hyperventilation with a severe metabolic acidosis.
An 18 year old man is admitted to hospital acutely short of breath. He cannot speak in full sentences and is audibly wheezing. He has been given a beta-2 adrenoceptor agonist and steroids, and his doctor wishes to give him a further inhaled drug
A 68 year old man with long-standing COPD has been prescribed several medications. However, he is struggling to cope at home, and when he is examined you see is SaO2 is 82%.
A 22 year old woman has been using a reliever inhaler for some time, but is finding she is now wheezing and feels more breathless when she exercises.
Results in increased pulmonary compliance, produces hyperinflated lungs and will show an obstructive defect on spirometry
Causes shortness of breath on exertion, a restrictive defect on spirometry and reduced pulmonary compliance but no sign of infection.
Will show a low FVC, a low FEV1 and a low FEV1/FVC% on spirometry
Combined Restrictive-Obstructive Lung Disease
A PDE4 inhibitor given orally for severe COPD
Mast cell stabiliser used in asthma and allergic rhinitis
An oral steroid used in severe or intractable rhinitis, acute asthma or an exacerbation of COPD