Flashcards in Formative Assessment Pointers Week 1 Deck (51):
Site of the horizontal fissure
RIGHT 4th rib
Level of the carina
Level of the oblique fissure posteriorly
Contains cartilage and surrounded by arch of azygous vein
RIGHT main bronchus
Carries oxygenated blood and sited inferoposteriorly within the lung root
Carries deoxygenated blood and sited superiormedially within the lung root
Product of Type II Alveolar cells that opposes alveolar surface tension
Keeps the visceral and parietal pleurae closely opposed and can be overcome by a pneumothorax
Transmural Pressure Gradient
Keeps the visceral and parietal pleurae closely opposed. Dependent on water molecule polarity.
Is a palpable reference point that can be used in basic emergency care.
The site used in decompressing a tension pneumothorax.
2nd intercostal space
The site of the oblique fissure anteriorly.
Most O2 is transported...
Most CO2 is transported...
A small proportion of O2 is transported...
An accessory muscle of respiration in the neck
A major inspiratory muscle in a sheet, containing crura.
Thoracic muscles involved in active expiration.
Where the middle lobe is auscultated
Between right ribs 4 and 6
The site of the lung apex
Superior to the clavicle
Where the lung base is auscultated
Fick's law of diffusion
Gas diffusion across a surface is inversely proportional to surface thickness and proportional to area
The total pressure of a mixture of gases equals the sum of the partial pressures of each component gas
The law of LaPlace
Smaller alveoli have a greater tendency to collapse
The Bohr effect
The oxygen dissocation curve is shifted right due to conditions in the tissues, meaning more oxygen is released
The Haldane effect
As O2 is removed from Hb, Hb's ability to pick up CO2 and CO2-generated H+ ions is increased
The amount of a gas dissolved in a given type and volume of liquid at constant temperature is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas in equilibrium with the liquid
The volume of air breathed in and out per minute
The volume of air exchanged between the atmosphere and alveoli per minute
The inspired air that is available for gas exchange
Those alveoli who are well ventilated but not adequately perfused
Alveolar dead space
The parts of the bronchial tree not available for airway exchange.
Anatomical dead space
The factor that most increases pulmonary ventilation.
Is palpable within the jugular notch.
Is the level at which the lower respiratory tract begins
Is an anatomical landmark for cardiopulmonary resuscitation
The intracellular mechanisms and processes that consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide.
At a constant temperature, the pressure exerted by a gas varies inversely with the volume of the gas
P=2T/r describes the relationship between alveolar radius and the tendency to collapse. A smaller alveolar radius means a higher tendency to collapse
Law of LaPlace
The processes that exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between the external environment and the cells of the body.
Comprises ventilation, gas exchange between the alveoli and blood, gas transport, and gas exchange at the tissues
Maintains alveolar patency through the elastic recoil of surrounding alveoli preventing alveolar collapse
A monoclonal antibody against IgE that also reduces IgE receptor expression.
A short acting B-2 agonist used to relieve bronchospasm in mild to moderate asthma
An add-on B-2 agonist used in asthma that responds poorly to initial management
A methylxanthine used as add-on therapy in asthma. Serum levels must be monitored due to drug interactions
An anti-inflammatory that can trigger bronchospasm in sensitive individuals
A CysLT-1 receptor antagonist (anti-leukotriene), used as add-on therapy in asthma
Carries deoxygenated blood, drains into the superior vena cava and arches round the right lung root.
Arise from the anterior surface of the descending aorta.