Formative Assessment Pointers Week 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Formative Assessment Pointers Week 1 Deck (51):
1

Site of the horizontal fissure

RIGHT 4th rib

2

Level of the carina

Rib 2

3

Level of the oblique fissure posteriorly

T3

4

Contains cartilage and surrounded by arch of azygous vein

RIGHT main bronchus

5

Carries oxygenated blood and sited inferoposteriorly within the lung root

Pulmonary vein

6

Carries deoxygenated blood and sited superiormedially within the lung root

pulmonary arteries

7

Product of Type II Alveolar cells that opposes alveolar surface tension

alveolar surfactant

8

Keeps the visceral and parietal pleurae closely opposed and can be overcome by a pneumothorax

Transmural Pressure Gradient

9

Keeps the visceral and parietal pleurae closely opposed. Dependent on water molecule polarity.

Intrapleural Fluid

10

Is a palpable reference point that can be used in basic emergency care.

Xiphoid Process

11

The site used in decompressing a tension pneumothorax.

2nd intercostal space

12

The site of the oblique fissure anteriorly.

Rib 6

13

Most O2 is transported...

by haemoglobin

14

Most CO2 is transported...

as bicarbonate

15

A small proportion of O2 is transported...

in solution

16

An accessory muscle of respiration in the neck

Sternocleidomastoid

17

A major inspiratory muscle in a sheet, containing crura.

Diaphragm

18

Thoracic muscles involved in active expiration.

Internal Intercostals

19

Where the middle lobe is auscultated

Between right ribs 4 and 6

20

The site of the lung apex

Superior to the clavicle

21

Where the lung base is auscultated

T11 vertebra

22

Fick's law of diffusion

Gas diffusion across a surface is inversely proportional to surface thickness and proportional to area

23

Dalton's law

The total pressure of a mixture of gases equals the sum of the partial pressures of each component gas

24

The law of LaPlace

Smaller alveoli have a greater tendency to collapse

25

The Bohr effect

The oxygen dissocation curve is shifted right due to conditions in the tissues, meaning more oxygen is released

26

The Haldane effect

As O2 is removed from Hb, Hb's ability to pick up CO2 and CO2-generated H+ ions is increased

27

Henry's Law

The amount of a gas dissolved in a given type and volume of liquid at constant temperature is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas in equilibrium with the liquid

28

The volume of air breathed in and out per minute

Pulmonary ventilation

29

The volume of air exchanged between the atmosphere and alveoli per minute

alveolar ventilation

30

The inspired air that is available for gas exchange

Alveolar ventilation

31

Those alveoli who are well ventilated but not adequately perfused

Alveolar dead space

32

The parts of the bronchial tree not available for airway exchange.

Anatomical dead space

33

The factor that most increases pulmonary ventilation.

Tidal volume

34

Is palpable within the jugular notch.

trachea

35

Is the level at which the lower respiratory tract begins

C6 vertebra

36

Is an anatomical landmark for cardiopulmonary resuscitation

xiphoid process

37

The intracellular mechanisms and processes that consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide.

Internal respiration

38

At a constant temperature, the pressure exerted by a gas varies inversely with the volume of the gas

Boyle's Law

39

P=2T/r describes the relationship between alveolar radius and the tendency to collapse. A smaller alveolar radius means a higher tendency to collapse

Law of LaPlace

40

The processes that exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between the external environment and the cells of the body.

External respiration

41

Comprises ventilation, gas exchange between the alveoli and blood, gas transport, and gas exchange at the tissues

External respiration

42

Maintains alveolar patency through the elastic recoil of surrounding alveoli preventing alveolar collapse

Alveolar interdependence

43

A monoclonal antibody against IgE that also reduces IgE receptor expression.

Subcutaneous omalizumab

44

A short acting B-2 agonist used to relieve bronchospasm in mild to moderate asthma

Inhaled salbutamol

45

An add-on B-2 agonist used in asthma that responds poorly to initial management

Inhaled salmeterol

46

A methylxanthine used as add-on therapy in asthma. Serum levels must be monitored due to drug interactions

Oral theophylline

47

An anti-inflammatory that can trigger bronchospasm in sensitive individuals

Oral ibuprofen

48

A CysLT-1 receptor antagonist (anti-leukotriene), used as add-on therapy in asthma

Oral montelukast

49

Carries deoxygenated blood, drains into the superior vena cava and arches round the right lung root.

Azygous vein

50

Arise from the anterior surface of the descending aorta.

Bronchial arteries

51

Surrounded by vessels, and may appear black on dissection.

Pulmonary lymph nodes