Lung Cancer Flashcards Preview

Y1 Respiratory > Lung Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lung Cancer Deck (94)
Loading flashcards...
1

General features of cancer

malignant growth, uncontrolled replication, local invasion, metastases, non-metastatic effects

2

Another name for non-metastatic effects?

paraneoplastic syndrome

3

What are non-metastatic effects?

rare, non-metastatic manifestations of malignancy mediated by hormones, cytokines or antibodies

4

Prognosis of lung cancer?

90% incurable at the time of lung cancer diagnosis
50% dead after 6 months

5

Potential reasons for poor lung cancer prognosis

Poor health at the time of diagnosis prevents treatment
Co-morbidities
Tends not to cause symptoms until advanced or metastatic

6

Potential Red Flags for Lung Cancer (8)

cough for 3 weeks or more
haemoptysis
breathless for no reason
recurrent or unresolved chest infections
unexplained weight loss
chest or shoulder pain
unexplained tiredness or lack of energy
hoarse voice

7

Differential diagnosis of haemoptysis

TB, Pneumonia, Aspergillus, Lung Cancer

8

Haemoptysis presents in around 70% of patients with lung cancer - true or false?

true

9

Patients presenting with haemoptysis should be _______ and sent for _____

referred, CT scan

10

Any ___ patient with pneumonia has a repeated xray after ______. If this is not resolved then the patient should be referred to CT.

50+, 6 weeks

11

On an xray, the affected lung may...

lose volume and appear smaller

12

Stridor (in context of lung cancer)

swelling in the airway due to tumour pressing on bronchioles

13

Common sites of local invasion in lung cancer (6)

recurrent laryngeal nerve
pericardium
oesophagus
brachial plexus
pleural cavity
SVC

14

What is the result of a tumour pressing on the recurrent laryngeal nerve?

hoarse voice
may cause the vocal cord not to move

15

What are the issues surrounding pericardial invasion by a tumour?

breathlessness
atrial fibrillation
pericardial effusion
dysrhythmias - tamponade
poor cardiac output

16

Tumour invasion of the oesophagus causes...

dysphagia

17

Pancoast tumour

apical lung cancer invading the brachial plexus

18

Symptoms of pancoasts tumour

pain, muscle wasting, sensory loss, weakness - occurring gradually in ipsilateral arm

19

Invasion of the pleural cavity causes...

pleural effusion - could contain answer if this is first presentation

20

Presentation of pleural effusion on examination

dull percussion
low - no breath sounds
white xray

21

Presentation of SVC obstruction due to lung cancer?

distension of jugular vein
pressure headaches and blurry vision
superficial veins

22

How might SVC obstruction be relieved in lung cancer?

stent or chemotherapy

23

Chest wall invasion can cause...

erosion of ribs, nerves and arteries

24

type of pain associated with chest wall invasion?

neuropathic burning sensation,
worsened by movement
localised
often described as worse at night

25

The patient is at risk of _______ _______ if the tumour starts to invade the pulmonary artery. This type of tumour may erode through the artery and the ________ to cause a sudden death due to massive _______.

Pulmonary embolis
bronchus
haemoptysis

26

Common sites of metastases in lung cancer (6)

liver
brain
bone
adrenal
skin
Lung

27

Features of cerebral metastases in lung cancer

Gradual onset of:
Weakness
visual disturbance
headaches
fits

28

Features of headaches due to metastases?

worse in the morning
worse with sneezing
not photophobic
due to increase in ICP

29

Treatment for cerebral metastases?

high dose corticosteroids i.e. dexamethasone (ICP)
radiotherapy (tumour)
chemotherapy (tumour)

30

Particularly abnormal in Liver Metastases?

Alkaline Phosphatase