Flashcards in Lung Cancer Deck (94)
General features of cancer
malignant growth, uncontrolled replication, local invasion, metastases, non-metastatic effects
Another name for non-metastatic effects?
What are non-metastatic effects?
rare, non-metastatic manifestations of malignancy mediated by hormones, cytokines or antibodies
Prognosis of lung cancer?
90% incurable at the time of lung cancer diagnosis
50% dead after 6 months
Potential reasons for poor lung cancer prognosis
Poor health at the time of diagnosis prevents treatment
Tends not to cause symptoms until advanced or metastatic
Potential Red Flags for Lung Cancer (8)
cough for 3 weeks or more
breathless for no reason
recurrent or unresolved chest infections
unexplained weight loss
chest or shoulder pain
unexplained tiredness or lack of energy
Differential diagnosis of haemoptysis
TB, Pneumonia, Aspergillus, Lung Cancer
Haemoptysis presents in around 70% of patients with lung cancer - true or false?
Patients presenting with haemoptysis should be _______ and sent for _____
referred, CT scan
Any ___ patient with pneumonia has a repeated xray after ______. If this is not resolved then the patient should be referred to CT.
50+, 6 weeks
On an xray, the affected lung may...
lose volume and appear smaller
Stridor (in context of lung cancer)
swelling in the airway due to tumour pressing on bronchioles
Common sites of local invasion in lung cancer (6)
recurrent laryngeal nerve
What is the result of a tumour pressing on the recurrent laryngeal nerve?
may cause the vocal cord not to move
What are the issues surrounding pericardial invasion by a tumour?
dysrhythmias - tamponade
poor cardiac output
Tumour invasion of the oesophagus causes...
apical lung cancer invading the brachial plexus
Symptoms of pancoasts tumour
pain, muscle wasting, sensory loss, weakness - occurring gradually in ipsilateral arm
Invasion of the pleural cavity causes...
pleural effusion - could contain answer if this is first presentation
Presentation of pleural effusion on examination
low - no breath sounds
Presentation of SVC obstruction due to lung cancer?
distension of jugular vein
pressure headaches and blurry vision
How might SVC obstruction be relieved in lung cancer?
stent or chemotherapy
Chest wall invasion can cause...
erosion of ribs, nerves and arteries
type of pain associated with chest wall invasion?
neuropathic burning sensation,
worsened by movement
often described as worse at night
The patient is at risk of _______ _______ if the tumour starts to invade the pulmonary artery. This type of tumour may erode through the artery and the ________ to cause a sudden death due to massive _______.
Common sites of metastases in lung cancer (6)
Features of cerebral metastases in lung cancer
Gradual onset of:
Features of headaches due to metastases?
worse in the morning
worse with sneezing
due to increase in ICP
Treatment for cerebral metastases?
high dose corticosteroids i.e. dexamethasone (ICP)