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Flashcards in Pulmonary Function Tests Deck (29):
1

Exhaled breath nitric oxide is a useful measure of...

eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma 

2

In what condition would the following changes occur in spirometry?

a. decrease FVC

b. decrease FEV1

c. increase RV

COPD

3

Methacholine/Histamine/Mannitol are examples of...

an indirect inflammatory challenge

markers of airway hyper-responsiveness with a concentration to cause a decrease of 20% FEV1

4

In what conditions would the RV increase?

FVC reduction

5

what levels of exhaled Nitric oxide reflect uncontrolled asthmatic inflammation?

>35ppb

6

The total lung capacity is decreased in emphysema - true or false?

false 

emphysema causes difficulting in getting air out and thus results in hyperinflation and an increased TLC

7

Examples of effort dependent tests (2) 

How are they carried out?

FEV

Flow rates

 

Carried out using spirometry

8

A change in which value will occur in asthma?

FVC

FEV1

Residual Volume 

 

FEV1

The FVC will remain the same as the total capacity is possible but takes longer. The residual volume remains the same unless there is chronic poor-control and thus airway remodelling

9

When spirometry is normal, FEV1/FVC should be <75% - true or false?

False

They should be greater than 75%.

 

Asthmatics may also produce this if they have good lung volume, good control and have been involved in activities that focus on diaphragmatic breathing

10

What changes in the following parameters in spirometry would be expected in a patient with COPD

a. FVC

b. FEV1

c. Residual Volume

a. there should be a decrease in FVC

b. There would be a decrease in FEV1

c. The residual volume would increase 

11

Forced Expiratory Ratio

FEV1/FVC

 

12

What are the expected values of... 

PEFR

FEV1

FVC

FEV1/FVC Ratio

FEV1 repsonse to ß2 agonists

...in obstructive disease?

PEFR - decreased

FEV1 - decreased

FVC - Normal in Asthma

Decreased in COPD

FEV1/FVC ratio - <75%

Response to b2 agonist - >15% asthma

<15% in COPD

13

Why does the FEV1 initially go up in exercise?

Due to the release of adrenaline.

Asthmatics then get bronchoconstriction as there is a rebound reaction 

14

Describe Total Lung Transfer for CO

CO diffusion across alveolar-capillary barrier - aka single breath diffusing capacity

 

Acts as a soluble gas marker with a high binding affinity for haemoglobin 

 

It is corrected for Alveolar Volume (KCO)

15

Q image thumb

https://s3.amazonaws.com/brainscape-prod/system/cm/201/511/170/q_image_thumb.png?1479761356

16

What is total lung transfer for CO corrected for?

Alveolar Volume

17

What are the most common types of pulmonary function tests?

Effort dependent tests

18

Which condition exhibits pressure dependent expiratory airway closure?

emphysema

19

Forced Expiratory Manoeuvre (TLC to RV)

FEV

FVC

FER

RVC (relaxed vital capacity)

are all examples of...

Dynamic Lung Volumes 

20

Dynamic Lung Volumes (5)

Forced Expiratory Manoeuvre (TLC to RV)

FEV

FVC

FER

RVC (relaxed vital capacity)

21

What are the potential methods of Bronchial Challenge Testing ?(3)

  1. Exercise
  2. Methacholine/Histamine/Mannitol
  3. Allergens/Chemicals

22

FEV1/FVC

 

Forced Expiratory Ratio

23

Where is impulse oscillometry useful?

In patients (i.e. kids) where it is easier to breathe at tidal volume rather than forced expiratory manoeuvre

24

Test for measuring static lung volumes

Effort Independent Tests

Helium Dilution Test

Gas trapping in COPD

25

What are the 3 types of pulmonary function tests that can be carried out?

  1. Effort dependent tests
  2. Effort independent tests
  3. Gas diffusion tests

 

26

Which conditions exhibit volume dependent expiratory airway closure?

asthma 

chronic bronchitis

27

In what conditions is Total Lung Transfer for CO reduced? (6)

Why?

Anemia

Emphysema

Interstitial Lung Disease

Pulmonary Oedema

Pulmonary Embolis

Bronchiectasis 

Because diffusion is reduced in these conditions

28

How is airway resistance measured?

Whole body plethysmography

Impulse oscillometry

29

What are the expected values of... 

PEFR

FEV1

FVC

FEV1/FVC Ratio

FEV1 repsonse to ß2 agonists

...in restrictive disease 

 

PEFR - Normal

FEV1 - decreased

FVC - decreased 

FEV1/FVC Ratio - >75%

FEV1 repsonse to ß2 agonists - No response