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Y1 Respiratory > Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (68):
1

Upper respiratory tract consists of... (4)

R and L nasal cavities
Oral cavity
naso, oro, laryngopharynx
larynx

2

Lower respiratory tract consists of...(6)

trachea
R and L main bronchi
lobar bronchi
segmental bronchi
bronchioles
alveoli

3

Which parts of the LRT are located in the lungs?

lobar bronchi --> alveoli

4

What happens at the level of C6 vertebrae?

larynx becomes trachea
pharynx becomes oesophagus

5

The trachea can be palpated at the _______ notch of the ________

jugular, manubrium

6

The isthmus of the thyroid gland is anterior to tracheal cartilages _____

2 -4

7

What are the functions of the chest walls? (3)

protect the heart and lungs
make the movements of breathing
breast tissue - lactation

8

Layers of the chest wall (5)

skin
fascia
skeletal muscle
bones/joints
parietal pleura

9

The chest cavity consists of the mediastinum and the R and L pleural cavities - true or false?

true

10

During development the lung bud penetrates the pleural cavity - true or false?

false
the lung bud pushes against but never enters the pleural cavity

11

Where does the lung bud originate from?

the mediastinum

12

Development of the lung bud into the pleural area causes the development of a ______ and _______ pleura

visceral, parietal

13

The parietal pleura is the part which attaches to the....

chest wall

14

The visceral pleura is the part which attaches to the...

lung

15

The pleural fluid does two things, these are?

act as a lubricant
create surface tension

16

What does the pleural surface tension ensure?

the lungs move with the pleural fluid and thus inflate

17

number of bronchopulmonary segments in each lung

10

18

number of lobar bronchi

5

19

Each bronchopulmonary segment has its own nerve and blood supply - true or false?

true

20

Name the lobes and fissures of the lungs

R - superior lobe, inferior lobe, middle lobe
horizontal and oblique fissure
L - superior and inferior lobe
oblique fissure

21

The true ribs are ribs 1-8 - true or false?

false
the true ribs are ribs 1-7

22

How are the true ribs identified?

they attach via their costal cartilage directly to the sternum

23

The false ribs are ribs 8-10 - true or false

true

24

How are the false ribs identified?

attach via a common cartilaginous bar

25

ribs 11 and 12

floating ribs with no attachment to sternum

26

Parts of the thoracic skeleton (6)

12 pairs ribs
intercostal spaces
costal margin
12 thoracic vertebrae
clavicle and scapula
sternum

27

Parts of the sternum (4)

manubrium
body
xiphoid
sternal angle

28

what does the costal groove of the rib contain?

artery, nerve and vein

29

Where does the rib articulate with the vertebrae?

superior vertebrae body, vertebrae body of same number, transverse process of vertebrae

30

What part of the rib articulates with the transverse process of the vertebrae?

the tubercle

31

synovial joint in the resp. area?

sternocostal joint

32

A synovial joint is...

a fibrous joint

33

costovertebral joints are found anteriorly - true or false?

false
they are found posteriorly - rib articulation with vertebrae

34

3 layers of skeletal muscles between ribs and intercostal spaces?

external
internal
innermost

35

main muscle of breathing

diaphragm

36

13 pairs of intercostal spaces - true or false?

false - 11 pairs

37

Each intercostal space carries a neurovascular bundle between the ______ and _______ muscle layers

internal and innermost

38

the nerve supply comes from the ______ ramus of the spinal nerve

anterior

39

The posterior blood supply to the intercostal spaces come from...

arterial - thoracic aorta
venous - azygous vein

40

The anterior blood supply to the intercostal spaces comes from...

the internal thoracic arteries and veins

41

the thoracic arteries and veins course (vertically/horizontally) either side of the deep surface of the sternum

vertically

42

3 openings in the diaphragm to allow which three things to pass through?

aorta, IVC, oesophagus

43

the diaphragm has a __- shaped tendon

U

44

why is the right dome of the diaphragm generally more superior?

due to the presence of liver in RUQ

45

The diaphragm is an example of ______ muscle

skeletal

46

nerve that controls the diaphragm

phrenic

47

the phrenic nerve originates from...

Cervical vertebra 3,4,5 anterior rami

48

The muscular attachments of the diaphragm are...(3)

the sternum (lower body)
the lower six ribs (7-12)
L1-3 vertebral bodies

49

the phrenic nerves are found on the anterior surface of _______ _______ in the neck

scalenus muscle

50

the phrenic nerves are found in the chest descending over the ______ aspects of the heart

lateral

51

The phrenic nerves supply somatic sensory and sympathetic axons to the ______ and ______ ________

diaphragm and fibrous pericardium

52

The phrenic nerves supply what sort of axons to the diaphragm and fibrous pericardium

somatic sensory and sympathetic

53

Where are somatic motor axons supplied to by phrenic nerves?

diaphragm

54

Nerve supply of the intercostal muscles

intercostal nerves from the anterior rami of thoracic spinal nerves

55

Origin of the thoracic artery (internal mammary)

branch off the subclavian artery

56

The thoracic artery supplies the _______ parts of the intercostal spaces, supplying the skin, _____, muscles, _____ and _______ pleura of the intercostal space

anterior, fascia, bone, parietal

57

Clinical application of the thoracic artery

can be mobilised from its attachment, sectioned inferiorly and anastomosed to a coronary artery distal to an occlusion.
Coronary artery bypass grafting

58

Origins of the diaphragm

deep surfaces of
1. xiphoid process
2. costal cartilages and lower ribs
3. L1-3 vertebrae

59

Insertion of the diaphragm

central tendon - aponeurosis

60

Openings in the diaphragm

caval opening (IVC)
aortic hiatus
oesophageal hiatus

61

aortic hiatus

thoracic aorta, azygous vein and thoracic duct

62

insertion of external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominus muscles

aponeurosis to linea albal

63

Origin of external oblique

superficial aspect of ribs
iliac crest
pubic tubercle

64

Origins of internal oblique

inferior aspect of ribs
iliac crest
thoracolumbar fascia

65

Origins of transversus abdominus

deep aspect of ribs
iliac crest
thoracolumbar fascia

66

origins of rectus abdominus

costal cartilage
xiphoid process

67

Insertion of rectus abdominus

pubic bones

68

Nerve supply to abdominal muscles

thoracoabdominal nerves