Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (68):
Upper respiratory tract consists of... (4)
R and L nasal cavities
naso, oro, laryngopharynx
Lower respiratory tract consists of...(6)
R and L main bronchi
Which parts of the LRT are located in the lungs?
lobar bronchi --> alveoli
What happens at the level of C6 vertebrae?
larynx becomes trachea
pharynx becomes oesophagus
The trachea can be palpated at the _______ notch of the ________
The isthmus of the thyroid gland is anterior to tracheal cartilages _____
What are the functions of the chest walls? (3)
protect the heart and lungs
make the movements of breathing
breast tissue - lactation
Layers of the chest wall (5)
The chest cavity consists of the mediastinum and the R and L pleural cavities - true or false?
During development the lung bud penetrates the pleural cavity - true or false?
the lung bud pushes against but never enters the pleural cavity
Where does the lung bud originate from?
Development of the lung bud into the pleural area causes the development of a ______ and _______ pleura
The parietal pleura is the part which attaches to the....
The visceral pleura is the part which attaches to the...
The pleural fluid does two things, these are?
act as a lubricant
create surface tension
What does the pleural surface tension ensure?
the lungs move with the pleural fluid and thus inflate
number of bronchopulmonary segments in each lung
number of lobar bronchi
Each bronchopulmonary segment has its own nerve and blood supply - true or false?
Name the lobes and fissures of the lungs
R - superior lobe, inferior lobe, middle lobe
horizontal and oblique fissure
L - superior and inferior lobe
The true ribs are ribs 1-8 - true or false?
the true ribs are ribs 1-7
How are the true ribs identified?
they attach via their costal cartilage directly to the sternum
The false ribs are ribs 8-10 - true or false
How are the false ribs identified?
attach via a common cartilaginous bar
ribs 11 and 12
floating ribs with no attachment to sternum
Parts of the thoracic skeleton (6)
12 pairs ribs
12 thoracic vertebrae
clavicle and scapula
Parts of the sternum (4)
what does the costal groove of the rib contain?
artery, nerve and vein
Where does the rib articulate with the vertebrae?
superior vertebrae body, vertebrae body of same number, transverse process of vertebrae
What part of the rib articulates with the transverse process of the vertebrae?
synovial joint in the resp. area?
A synovial joint is...
a fibrous joint
costovertebral joints are found anteriorly - true or false?
they are found posteriorly - rib articulation with vertebrae
3 layers of skeletal muscles between ribs and intercostal spaces?
main muscle of breathing
13 pairs of intercostal spaces - true or false?
false - 11 pairs
Each intercostal space carries a neurovascular bundle between the ______ and _______ muscle layers
internal and innermost
the nerve supply comes from the ______ ramus of the spinal nerve
The posterior blood supply to the intercostal spaces come from...
arterial - thoracic aorta
venous - azygous vein
The anterior blood supply to the intercostal spaces comes from...
the internal thoracic arteries and veins
the thoracic arteries and veins course (vertically/horizontally) either side of the deep surface of the sternum
3 openings in the diaphragm to allow which three things to pass through?
aorta, IVC, oesophagus
the diaphragm has a __- shaped tendon
why is the right dome of the diaphragm generally more superior?
due to the presence of liver in RUQ
The diaphragm is an example of ______ muscle
nerve that controls the diaphragm
the phrenic nerve originates from...
Cervical vertebra 3,4,5 anterior rami
The muscular attachments of the diaphragm are...(3)
the sternum (lower body)
the lower six ribs (7-12)
L1-3 vertebral bodies
the phrenic nerves are found on the anterior surface of _______ _______ in the neck
the phrenic nerves are found in the chest descending over the ______ aspects of the heart
The phrenic nerves supply somatic sensory and sympathetic axons to the ______ and ______ ________
diaphragm and fibrous pericardium
The phrenic nerves supply what sort of axons to the diaphragm and fibrous pericardium
somatic sensory and sympathetic
Where are somatic motor axons supplied to by phrenic nerves?
Nerve supply of the intercostal muscles
intercostal nerves from the anterior rami of thoracic spinal nerves
Origin of the thoracic artery (internal mammary)
branch off the subclavian artery
The thoracic artery supplies the _______ parts of the intercostal spaces, supplying the skin, _____, muscles, _____ and _______ pleura of the intercostal space
anterior, fascia, bone, parietal
Clinical application of the thoracic artery
can be mobilised from its attachment, sectioned inferiorly and anastomosed to a coronary artery distal to an occlusion.
Coronary artery bypass grafting
Origins of the diaphragm
deep surfaces of
1. xiphoid process
2. costal cartilages and lower ribs
3. L1-3 vertebrae
Insertion of the diaphragm
central tendon - aponeurosis
Openings in the diaphragm
caval opening (IVC)
thoracic aorta, azygous vein and thoracic duct
insertion of external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominus muscles
aponeurosis to linea albal
Origin of external oblique
superficial aspect of ribs
Origins of internal oblique
inferior aspect of ribs
Origins of transversus abdominus
deep aspect of ribs
origins of rectus abdominus
Insertion of rectus abdominus