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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (115)
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1

Stimulation of post-ganglionic cholinergic fibres in the parasympathetic pathway is mediated by ___ Muscarinic Ach Receptors on ASM

M3

2

What does post-ganglionic stimulation of cholinergic fibres cause?

bronchial smooth muscle contraction
increased mucous secretion

3

Stimulation of post-ganglionic non-cholinergic fibres causes bronchial smooth muscle contraction - true or false?

false - causes relaxation by Nitric Oxide and Vasoactive intestinal peptide

4

Peptides involved in parasympathetic non-cholinergic fibres?

Nitric Oxide (NO)
Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)

5

Which nerve provides parasympathetic stimulation to the airway smooth muscle?

Vagus - CN X

6

There is no sympathetic innervation of bronchial smooth muscle in humans - true or false?

true

7

Stimulation of sub-mucosal glands and smooth muscle of blood vessels by post-ganglionic sympathetic fibres causes...(4)

- bronchial smooth relaxation via b2-adrenoceptors
- decreased mucous secretion mediated by b2-adrenoceptors on goblet cells
- increased mucociliary clearance mediated by b2-adrenoceptors on epithelial cells
- vascular smooth muscle contraction mediated by a1-adrenoceptors

8

contraction stimulated by a1-adrenoceptors

vascular smooth muscle

9

relaxation stimulated by b2 adrenoceptors

bronchial smooth muscle

10

Activation of the M3 receptors leads to activation of which G protein?

Gq/11

11

Gq/11 activates ____ which converts PIP2 to ____ and ____

PLC, IP3, DAG

12

IP3 stimulates calcium release from the _______ _______ via the ____ receptor

sarcoplasmic reticulum, IP3

13

Calcium induced calcium release is mediated by which receptor in smooth muscle?

ryanodine receptor

14

Cellular depolarisation causes the closure of voltage gated calcium channels - true or false?

false
causes VGCC to open and allow calcium to influx allowing contraction of the smooth muscle

15

Calcium binds and activates _______, this allows the subsequent activation of _______. Active MLCK allows phosphorylated ______ cross bridge binding to ______ via the breakdown of ATP

Calmodulin, MLCK, myosin, actin

16

What is calmodulin?

calmodulin is a cytoplasmic Ca receptor which undergoes a conformational change when bound to Ca

17

In the presence of high IC Ca, the rate of phosphorylation exceeds the rate of dephosphorylation of MLCK by myosin phosphatase - true or false?

true

18

How is IC calcium removed from the cell for smooth muscle relaxation?

primary and secondary active transport

19

Primary Active Transport

utilises energy in the form of ATP to drive a process of moving the ion from a low concentration to a high concentration

20

Secondary Active Transport

utilises energy from another process where the energy is not required to move another ion i.e. a symporter

21

In order to counteract the action M3 causing contraction, _______ activates b2 adrenoceptors which activates the G-protein ___.

adrenaline, Gs

22

Activation of the Gs protein stimulates the enzyme...

adenylate cyclase

23

adenylate cyclase produces _____ which is broken down by _____

cAMP, PDE

24

What does cAMP activate?

PKA

25

PKA phosphorylates and stimulates MLCK - true or false?

false
PKA phosphorylates and thus inhibits MLCK

26

PKA phosphorylates and stimulates...

myosin phosphatase

27

Overall, activation of PKA causes what?

bronchial smooth muscle relaxation

28

cAMP is degraded to what by PDE?

5'AMP

29

What is the incidence of Asthma in industrialised countries?

5-10%

30

How can asthma be defined?

recurrent and reversible obstruction to airways in response to substance or stimuli that are not necessarily noxious and do not normally affect non-asthmatics