Arthrology Of Hte Vertebral Column Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Arthrology Of Hte Vertebral Column Deck (229):
1

The ligamentous sacro-iliac joints (or most of the ligamentous joints of the vertebral column) are examples of which joint classification?

Syndesmosis

2

Which classification of cartilage joint is the first to appear developmentally?

(Amphiarthrosis) synchondrosis

3

Which cartilage joint occurs between bones formed by endochondral ossification?

(Amphiarthrosis) symphysis

4

What are the four consistent features of synovial (death)joints?

Articular or fibrous capsule, synovial membrane, articular cartilage and synovial fluid

5

Type I articular receptors are located in what part of the joint?

Superficial layer of the fibrous capsule

6

What is the function of the type I articular receptor?

They monitor the joint "at rest"

7

What are the characteristics of the type I articular receptors?

Located in the superficial layer of the fibrous capsule, resemble Ruffini endings, most numerous in cervical zygapophyses and they monitor the joint "at rest"

8

Type II articular receptors are located in what part of the joint?

Deeper strata of the fibrous capsule

9

What is the function of type II articular receptors?

They monitor the joint during normal range of motion

10

What are the characteristics of type II articular receptors?

Located in deeper strata of the fibrous capsule, resemble pacinian corpuscles, most numerous in the cervical spine and monitor the joint during normal range of motion

11

What is the location of type III articular receptors?

Collateral and intrinsic ligaments of many joints, they were not thought to be present along the vertebral column

12

What is the function of the type III articular receptors?

They monitor the joint during extreme motion or beyond normal range of motion

13

What are the characteristics of type III articular receptors?

Present, in collaterals and intrinsic ligaments, resemble Golgi tendon organs, not initially observed along the vertebral column and monitor extreme joint motion

14

What is the function of type IV articular receptors?

Nociceptive, they monitor pain

15

Type IVa articular receptors would be present in what locations?

Fibrous capsule, articular fat pads or adventitia of blood vessels

16

Type IVb articular receptors would be present in what locations?

Accessory ligaments in general, dense in the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine

17

What are the 3 modifications of articular synovial membrane?

1) synovial villi
2) articular fat pads or Haversian glands
3) synovial menisci and intra-articular discs

18

Articular fat pads are most numerous in what location along the vertebral column?

Lumbar zygapophyses

19

What are the specific functions of type A synovial cells?

Are phagocytic

20

What is the specific function of Type B synovial cells?

Secrete proteinaceous substances and hyaluronic acid

21

Which collagen fiber type predominates in articular cartilage?

Type II

22

What are proteoglycans composed of?

A core protein and glycosaminoglycans

23

Cartilage is able to change shape due to compression, a characteristic known as _____?

Deformation

24

What is implied when cartilage is said to have elastic properties?

Cartilage can deform and returns to original volume rapidly, a time independent property

25

What is implied when cartilage is said to have viscoelastic properties?

Cartilage can deform but returns to original volume slowly, a time dependent property

26

Which theory of joint lubrication implies a loss of fluid form the cartilage into the joint space during compression results in increased viscosity of the synovial fluid?

Weeping theory

27

Which theory of joint lubrication implies water loss form the synovial fluid increases viscosity of the remaining synovial fluid?

Boosted theory

28

Which theory of joint lubrication implies an adsorption of lubricant onto cartilage surfaces is responsible for the low-friction observed during movement?

Boundary theory

29

What are the properties of synovial fluid?

It is yellow-white, viscous, slightly alkaline and tastes salty

30

Synovial fluid consists of what specific chemical groups?

Fats, salts, albumins and hyaluronate

31

Which substance in synovial fluid was first thought to be responsible for its viscosity and lubricating behavior?

Hyaluronate

32

What is a complex synovial joint (diarthrosis)?

Within the simple joint or the compound joint, the articulating surfaces are separated by an articular disc (intra-articular disc) or meniscus

33

What morphological classification of synovial joints is classified as nonaxial?

Plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)

34

What morphological classifications of synovial joints would be classified as uniaxial?

Hinge (diarthrosis ginglymus) and pivot (diarthrosis trochoid)

35

What morphological classifications of synovial joints would be classified as biaxial?

(Diarthrosis) bicondylar, (diarthrosis) condylar, (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal and saddle (diarthrosis sellar)

36

Which vertebrae will have common ligaments?

Segments C2-L5 inclusive

37

What is the maximum number of common ligaments IDed with a vertebral couple?

8

38

What is the reason that nine common ligaments are IDed but only 8 will be attached at any specific vertebral couple?

The ligamentum nuchae and spurapsinous ligaments attach to the spinous tubercles, but only one of these will be IDed at a single vertebral couple

39

What common ligament(s) will attach to the vertebral arch?

The ligamentum flavum

40

In the fetus, which vertebral levels will demonstrate intervertebral discs?

These between C2 and Co1 inclusive

41

What is the number of true intervertebral discs IDed in the adult?

23

42

In the adult, which vertebral levels will demonstrate a true intervertebral disc?

C2-S1 inclusive

43

What is the effect of aging on the intervertebral disc nucleus pulposus?

It becomes more fibrous as water and proteoglycans concentrations diminish

44

What is the cervical nucleus pulposus composed of?

Fibrocartilage

45

What is the consequence of non-aggregated glycosaminoglycans in the lumbar nucleus pulposus?

The nucleus pulposus will lose water under deformation conditions

46

What cells is associated with the nucleus pulposus until about age 11?

Notochord cells

47

Which type of collagen is dominant in the nucleus pulposus?

Collagen type II

48

What is unusual about the cervical annulus fibrosus?

It lacks any lamellar or layered organization

49

What is the appearance of the cervical annulus fibrosus?

A horse-shoe with the anterior margin thick and the lateral margins tapering to the uncinate processes; the posterior marking is thin

50

What is the organization of the lumbar annulus fibrosus?

It has 12-14 concentric cylindrical lamellae

51

What is the reason the anterior margin of the lumbar intervertebral disc is les susceptible to rupture, herniation, prolapse, or protrusion?

The anterior margin of each lamellae is thick and the anterior longitudinal ligament is talons better developed than; the posterior allele or posterolateral longitudinal ligament

52

What is the water concentration in the lumbar annulus fibrosus at birth and after thirty?

Brith - 78%; 30 - 70%

53

What is the consequence of aggregated glycosaminoglycans in the lumbar annulus fibrosus?

The annulus fibrosus will retain water under deformation conditions

54

Which type of collagen is dominant in the annulus fibrosus?

Collagen type I

55

What is the organizational pattern for collagen fibers in the annulus fibrosus?

They are parallel with one another in a single lamellus and angled

56

What is the organization of collagen fibers between lamellae?

Collagen fibers will be angled in the opposite direction such that a spiral - counter spinal organization is observed

57

What is the average angle of collagen fibers within the annulus fibrosus?

They average 50-60 degrees

58

What is the principal type of collage fiber within the cartilage end plate?

The type II collagen fiber

59

What is the direction of collagen fibers within the cartilage end plate?

Collagen fibers are aligned anterior to posterior

60

What cell type is associated with the cartilage end plate?

Chondrocytes

61

What is the earliest indicator of intervertebral disc pathology of degeneration?

Changes in the histology of the cartilage end plate

62

What part of the intervertebral dis is the "growth plate"?

The transition zone

63

What part of the intervertebral disc is innervated?

The outer lamellae of the annulus fibrosus

64

What are the types of receptor endings in the intervertebral disc?

Nociceptors and proprioceptors

65

What is the relationship between size of the intervertebral disc and receptor endings?

The larger the disc, the greater the variety of receptor endings

66

What is the proposed function of receptor ending density in the anterior part of the intervertebral disc?

They provide feedback during extension

67

What innervates the annulus fibrosus at the posterior part of the intervertebral disc?

The recurrent meningeal/sinu-vertebral/sinus vertebral nerve

68

What forms the posterior neural plexus of the vertebral column?

The sinu-vertebral nerve (sinus vertebral nerve, recurrent meningeal nerve)

69

What forms the anterior neural plexus of the vertebral column?

Fibers form the ventral primary ramus

70

What is the name given to the white ramus communicans which becomes embedded within the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc?

The paradiscal ramus communicans

71

How does the intervertebral disc attach to the vertebral body?

Sharpey's fibers from the outer lamellae of the annulus fibrosus are firmly embedded into the epiphyseal rims of the adjacent vertebral bodies

72

In what regions of the vertebral column is the space formed between vertebral bodies by the intervertebral disc the greatest?

The cervical and lumbar curves

73

Which curve direction will be associated with the greatest space observed between vertebral bodies?

The lordotic or anterior curves

74

Wha structure is formed following migration of sclerotomes to surround the notochord?

The perichordal blastema

75

What is formed within the perichordal blastema between the sclerotomites?

The intrasclerotomal fissure or fissure of Von Ebner

76

What does the intrasclerotomal fissure or fissure of Von Ebner become?

The perichordal disc

77

What part of the intervertebral disc will the notochord form?

The nucleus pulposus

78

What part of the intervertebral disc will the perichordal disc form?

The annulus fibrosus

79

What is the earliest indicator of the position of the adult intervertebral disc?

The intrasclerotomal fissure or fissure of Von Ebner

80

What vertebral levels will the anterior longitudinal attach to?

Those between occiput and S3 inclusive are traditionally indicated

81

What is the lowest extent of the anterior longitudinal ligament based on recent studies?

L3

82

What is the function of the anterior longitudinal ligament?

It brakes or limits dorsi-flexion or hyperextension of the vertebral column

83

What was ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament in the lumbar region IDed as?

Forestier's disease

84

Anterior longitudinal ligament ossification in the lumbar region is now IDed as ______?

Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis or DISH

85

What vertebral levels will the posterior longitudinal ligament attach to?

Those between C2-S3 inclusive are traditionally indicated

86

Newer research suggests what regional variation in the posterior longitudinal ligaments?

Prominent in the cervicals occasional in the thoracics, rare in the lumbars

87

What is the relationship of the posterior longitudinal ligament to the vertebral Foramen?

It forms the anterior boundary of the spinal canal

88

What is the innermost layer of the posterior longitudinal ligament called?

The peri vertebral ligament

89

Where is ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament most commonly IDed?

The cervical spine with an 80% incidence

90

What is the clinical sign of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification in the cervical spine?

A loss of hand and finger dexterity

91

What is the incidence of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification in the thoracic and lumbar spine?

About 10% at the thoracic and 10% at the lumbar spine

92

What is the clinical sign of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification in the lumbar spine?

Faltering gait

93

What is the gender, age and ethnic bias associated with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament?

It is greater in males over 50 and has a higher incidence in the Japanese

94

What is the acronym for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament?

OPLL

95

At one time ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament was an example of what condition?

Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis or DISH

96

What vertebral levels will the ligamentum flavum be attached to ?

C2-S1 inclusive

97

What are the specific body attaching sites for he ligamentum flavum?

The laminae

98

In which region of the spine will the ligamentum flavum be paired?

The lumbar spine

99

What is the name given to the ligamentum flavum based on appearance and histology?

It is a yellow elastic ligament

100

What fibers are most ligaments made up of?

Collagen type I fibers which are whitish in appearance

101

What is the color of most ligaments in the body?

They are whitish

102

What is now thought to be a major function of the ligamentum flavum?

It is an early prime factor in extension of the vertebral column

103

Where is ossification of the ligamentum flavum commonly IDed?

The thoracic spine or thoracolumbar transition zone

104

What is the acronym for ossification of the ligamentum flavum?


OLF

105

What is the relationship between the capsular ligament and mobility?

The more lax/loose the capsular ligament is, the greater motion of he joint

106

What regions of the vertebral column demonstrate the greatest laxity of capsular ligaments?

The cervical and lumbar regions

107

What layers are present in the capsular ligament?

Superficial layer of collagen fibers and a deep layer of elastic fibers

108

What muscle will blend with the capsular ligament posteriorly?

The multifidis

109

What is the pattern of innervation for the zygapophysis capsular ligament?

It is typically innervated by 3 spinal nerves

110

If the zygapophyses leader capsular ligament is not significantly involved in restricting motion what is its function?

It is probably involved in proprioceptive feedback to the muscles stabilizing the vertebral couple during movement

111

What vertebral levels will the interspinous ligament be attached to?

Those between C2-S1 inclusive

112

What is the status of the human interspinous ligament compared with other common ligaments?

They are poorly developed as ligaments although collagen fibers are present

113

What is the status of the cervical interspinous ligament?

It is lacking, poorly developed, or simply considered the deep anterior part of the ligamentum nuchae

114

What is the status of the lumbar interspinous ligament?

It is broad and thick with 3 layers IDed form anterior to posterior

115

What is the classic function of the interspinous ligament?

It brakes or limits flexion of the vertebral column

116

What is now thought to be a major function of the interspinous ligament?

It is more likely a proprioceptive transducer for the spinal reflex

117

What will the ligamentum nuchae be attached to?

The external occipital protuberance, external occipital crest, the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1, and spinous tubercles between C2-C7 inclusive

118

What is the name given to the superficial layer of the ligamentum nuchae?

The funicular layer or part

119

What is the name given to the deep layer of the ligamentum nuchae?

Lamellae layer or part

120

What are the attachment sites for the superficial layer of the ligamentum nuchae?

The external occipital protuberance, external occipital crest and spinous tubercle of C7

121

What is the histological make-up of the limgentum nuchae?

It is a yellow elastic ligament

122

What is the primary yellow elastic or elastic ligament of the spine?

The ligamentum flavum

123

What is the termination level inferiorly for the spurapsinous ligament according to current literature?

Primarily at L4 (73%), between L4 and L5 (5%)

124

Where is the spurapsinous ligament said to be best developed?

In the lumbar spine

125

What is now thought to be a major function of the spurapsinous ligament?

It is a proprioceptive transducer for the spinal reflex

126

Where in the vertebral column is the intertransverse ligament best developed?

In the lumbar spine

127

What is the classification of the atlanto-occipital joint?

Synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal

128

What are the attachment sites of the anterior atlant-occipital ligament?

It is attached to the upper margin of the anterior arch of C1 and to the anterior margin of the Foramen magnum

129

What is the median thickening of the anterior atlanto-occipital ligament called?

The anterior longitudinal ligament

130

What is the classic function of the anterior atlanto-occipital ligament?

It brakes or limits "extension" of the skull over the cervical spine

131

Based on the amount of ossification o fate anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament what structures will form?

An incomplete ponticulus posticus of a complete or a complete one

132

What names are given to the opening formed by the ponticulus posticus?

Arcuate Foramen or retro articular canal

133

What is the classic function of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament?

It brakes or limits axial rotation, flexion, and perhaps lateral bending of the skull on atlas

134

What amount of flexion - extension is accommodated by the atlanto-occipital joint?

About 25 degrees

135

What amount of axial rotation is accommodated by the atlanto-occipital joint?

Abut 3-8 degrees one side axial rotation

136

What amount of lateral bending is accommodated by the atlanto-occipital joint?

About 5 degrees

137

Which motion is bets accommodated by the atlanto-occipital joint?

Flexion-extension

138

What are the joint surfaces of the median atlanto-axial joint at the anterior bursa?

The fovea dentis of C1 and the facet for fovea dentis of C2

139

What are the joint surfaces of the median atlanto-axial joint at the posterior bursa?

The groove fro the trades atlantal ligament of C2 and the transverse atlantal ligament

140

What ligament is formed by the transverse atlantal ligament and its perpendicular extension?

The cruciate ligament or cruciform ligament

141

What is the function of the transverse atlantal ligament?

It is the primary stabilizer of the atlanto-axial joint restriction the distance of C2 form the anterior arch of C1

142

What is the ADI?

The atlanto-dental interspace, a radiographic distance between the surfaces of the anterior bursa of the median atlanto-axial joint

143

What is the ADI of children compared to that of adults?

About 4.5 mm in children; 2-3mm in adults

144

What are the characteristics of the capsular ligament of the lateral atlanto-axial joint?

It is lax or loose and demonstrates a meniscoidal fold within the joint cavity

145

What are the attachment sites for the accessory atlanto-axial ligament?

The base of the odontoid process and vertebral bod of axis to the tubercle for the transverse atlantal ligament n the lateral mad of C1; a superior continuation may attach on theocipitla bone use behind that of the alar ligament

146

What ligament forms the posterior boundary of the spinal canal at C1/C2?

The posterior atlanto-axial ligament

147

What are the degrees of movement facilitated at the atlanto-axial joint?

About 20 degrees flexion-extension, 40 degrees on side axial rotation, and 5 degrees of lateral bending

148

The occiput-C1-C2 joint complex accounts for what percent of all cervical axial rotation?

About 60%

149

What name is given to the occipital-C2 region of the spine?

The carniovertebral junction

150

What ligaments are present at the occipital-axial joints?

The apical ligament of the dens/apicodental ligemtn, alar ligament and membranes tectoria/tectorial membrane

151

What ligament attaches to the anterior margin of the Foramen magnum and the tip of the odontoid process of C2?

The apical ligament of the dens

152

Embryologically, what forms the apical ligament of the dens?

The notochord

153

What is the function of he apical ligament of the dens?

It has no known function

154

What ligament attaches to the posterolateral part of hate odontoid process of C2 and to surface on the medial morder of the occipital condyle or as far anterior as the Anterolateral margin of the Foramen magnum?

The alar ligament

155

What is the function of the alar ligament?

Together they function to resist axial rotation

156

What forms the cranial continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament?

The membrane tectoria or tectorial membrane

157

What are the attachment sites for the superficial layer of he membrane tectoria or tectorial membrane?

The posterior part of the inferior epiphyseal rim and vertebral body of C2 to the capsular ligament of the atlanto-occipital joint and cranial dura of the posterior cranial fossa

158

What ligament is anterior to the dura mater of the medulla oblongata - spinal cord junction?

The membrane tectoria or tectorial membrane

159

What is the function of the membrana tectoria or tectorial membrane?

It resists flexion and extension of the skull on the upper cervical spine

160

List, in order, the ligaments in a midsagittal plane form the dura mater at the level of the medulla oblongata to the anterior bursa of the medieval atlanto-axial joint.

The membrana tectoria, the cruciate ligament, the capsular ligament of the posterior bursa of the median atlanto-axial joint, the alar ligament

161

For the cervical spine below C2, what is the range of flexion - extension?

About 90 degrees or about 18 degrees per couple

162

For the cervical spine below C2, what is the range of one side lateral bending/

About 50 degrees or about 10 degrees per couple

163

For the cervical spine below C2, what is the range of one side axial rotation?

About 33 degrees or about 6 degrees per couple

164

For the cervical spine below C2, what is the range of motion allowed for each type of join motion IDed?

90 degrees flexion-extensions, 50 one side lateral bending, 33 one side axial rotation

165

What are the joint surfaces of the costocentral joint?

The costal facet or costal Demi-facet on the vertebral body and the articular surface of the head of the rib

166

What are the joint surfaces of the costotransverse joint?

The transverse costal facet on the vertebral transverse process and the articular surface of the tubercle of the rib

167

What are the joint surface so the costocentral joint of the 1st, 11th, and 12th rib?

The superior costal facet on the vertebral body of T1, T11 or T12 and the articular surface of the head of the corresponding rib.

168

An intra-articular ligament will be IDed with which ribs?

Ribs 2-9

169

At what rib will the superior costotransverse ligament be absent?

The 1st rib

170

What ligaments will attach to the neck of the 12th rib?

The superior costotransverse ligament form T11 no the lumbosacral ligament form L1

171

Which ribs will have an attachment for the inferior costotransverse ligament?

Rib 1-11

172

Which ligament "fills" the costotransverse Foramen?

The inferior costotransverse ligament

173

Which vertebrae will have an attachment for the lateral costotransverse ligament?

T1-T11

174

At what rib will the lateral costotransverse ligament be absent?

The 12th rib

175

Which vertebral couples of the thoracic spine have the greatest motion?

T11/T12 and T12/L1

176

Which range of motion is greatest for lower thoracic vertebral couples?

Flexion-extension

177

Which range of motion is least for lower thoracic vertebral couples?

One side axial rotation

178

Which ligaments replace the intertransverse ligament at the lumbosacral joint?

The iliolumbar ligament and lumbosacral ligament

179

What muscle is intimately attaché to the superior iliolumbar ligament?

Quadratus lumborum

180

Which of the current ligaments form the iliolumbar ligament complex represents the iliolumbar ligament of classical descriptions?

The superior iliolumbar ligament

181

Which ligament form the iliolumbar ligament couples represents the lumbosacral ligament of classical descriptions?

The inferior iliolumbar ligament

182

What is the joint classification given to each ligament of the iliolumbar ligament complex?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

183

Which vertebral couple of the lumbar spine has the greatest range of motion?

L5/S1

184

Which range of motion is greatest for all lumbar vertebral couples?

Flexion - extension

185

Which range of motion is least for L1-L5 vertebral couples?

One side axial ration

186

Which range of motion is least for the L5/S1 vertebral couple?

One side lateral bending

187

List, in order, from cranial to caudal the ligaments forming the anterior boundary of the spinal column.

The anterior atlanto-occipital ligament, anterior atlanto-axial ligament, anterior longitudinal ligament and the anterior sacrococcygeal ligament

188

List, in order, from cranial to caudal the ligaments forming the anterior boundary of the spinal canal.

The membrana tectoria, posterior longitudinal ligament and the deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

189

List, in order, from cranial to caudal the ligaments forming the posterior boundary of he spinal canal.

The posterior atlanto-occipital ligament, posterior atlanto-axial ligament, ligamentum flavum and the superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

190

What forms the closure for the spinal canal inferiorly?

The fusion of the deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament with the superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

191

What is the homolog of the capsular ligament at the sacrococcygeal joint?

The intercornual ligament

192

What is the auricular surface of sacrum composed of?

True articular cartilage, a modification of hyaline cartilage

193

What is the auricular surface of the ilium composed of?

Articular cartilage, interspersed with Fibrocartilage

194

What is the superficial appearance of the auricular surfaces of the sacro-iliac joint by age 15?

The sacrum develops a sacral groove while the ilium develops an iliac ridge

195

Which gender has greater unevenness of the auricular surface of the sacro-iliac joint?

Males

196

What forms the accessory sacro-iliac joint?

The sacral tuberosity and the iliac sulcus

197

What pathological or age-related modifications of the sacro-iliac joint may occur?

Degenerative arthrosis and ankylosis

198

What does degenerative arthrosis mean?

A condition off degeneration of the joint, sometimes referre to as degenerative joint disease (DJD)

199

What does ankylosis mean?

A condition of fibrous adhesion occurs within the joint

200

What is the age and surface bias associated with degenerative arthrosis of the sacro-iliac joint?

Age 40, the iliac auricular surface

201

What is the age and gender bias associated with ankylosis of the sacro-iliac joint?

Age 50 and male bias particularly in African American males

202

Wha rage and gender bias is associated with ossification of the anterior sacro-iliac ligament?

Age 40 and male bias

203

Which is the strongest of the sacro-iliac ligaments?

The interosseous sacro-iliac ligament

204

What passes between the layers of the interosseous sacro-iliac ligament?

Dorsal rami from the sacral spinal nerve

205

What ligament blends with the lateral border of the long posterior sacro-iliac ligament?

The sacrotuberous ligamnet

206

What is formed by the continuation of the sacrotuberous ligament along the ischial ramus?

The falciform process

207

What separates the greater sciatic and lesser sciatic foramina?

The sacrospinous ligament

208

What is the apparent function of synovial villi?

Increase the surface area of synovial membrane available for secretion - absorption phenomena

209

What is the primary function of bound glycosaminoglycans in articular cartilage?

Form a network fro water retention

210

What morphological classification of synovial joints would be classified as multiaxial?

Ball and socket (diarthrosis enarthrosis), (diarthrosis spheroidal), (diarthrosis cotyloid) are all classifications given to the same type of joint

211

Diarthrosis ginglymus joints are commonly called ____ joints based on action.

Synovial hinge

212

Diarthrosis trochoid joints are commonly called ______ joints based on actions.

Synovial pivot

213

What is the precent of IVD height contribution to the length of each region of the VC?

C- 22-25%, T-20%, L33%

214

What innervates the outer lamellae of the annulus fibrosus at the lateral part of the IVD?

Fibers from the ventral primary ramus, fibers from the white ramus communicans, fibers from the paradiscal ramus communicans, fibers from the gray ramus communicans

215

What is the appearance of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the lumbar spine?

It is hourglass shaped along its lateral margins

216

What will the ligamentum flavum attach to in addition to the lamina?

They may blend with the capsular ligament of the zygapophysis

217

The capsular ligament may blend with which other common ligament?

The ligamentum flavum

218

What will the spurapsinous ligament be attached to?

The spinous tubercles along the vertebral column form C7-sacrum

219

What will the intertransverse ligament be attached to?

The transverse tubercles and TVP of adjacent vertebrae along the VC from C1-L5

220

What is the status of the cervical intertransverse ligament?

It is said to be paired with an anterior and posterior intertransverse ligament present

221

What is the status of the lumbar intertransverse ligament?

It is well developed with two parts IDed, a ventral and dorsal slip

222

What part of the lumbar intertransverse ligament covers the intervertebral foramen?

The ventral slip

223

What part of the intertransverse ligament in the lumbar spine divides the body wall into an anterior and posterior muscular compartment?

The dorsal slip

224

Where is accessory atlanto-axial ligament observed?

Anterior to the membrana tectoria/tectorial membrane

225

The lumbosacral ligament will blend with which sacro-iliac joint ligament??

The anterior sacro-iliac ligament

226

What are the attachment sites for the anterior iliolumbar ligaments?

The vertebral body and TVP L5 is attached to the ilium

227

What ligament represents the continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament at the sacrococcygeal joint?

The deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

228

What ligament represents the homolog of the ligamentum flavum at the sacrococcygeal joint?

The superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

229

What is the homolog of the intertransverse ligament at the sacrocoygeal joint?

The lateral sacrococcygeal ligament