Flashcards in The Head Deck (216):
Excluding the auditory ossicles, how many bones form the skull?
What is the cranium?
The skull minus the mandible
What is the clavaria?
The skull cap
How many bones form the neurocranium?
What bones form the neurocranium?
Frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid and ethmoid
How many bones form the facial skeleton?
What are the four subclassifications of synarthrosis joints based on Latin groupings?
Suture, gomphosis, schindylesis and syndesmosis
What are the characteristics of sutura vera (true sutures)?
Sutures demonstrating interlocking of the adjacent bone surfaces; typically formed by intramembranous ossification
What are the characteristics of sutura notha (false sutures)?
Sutures lacking interlocking of adjacent bone surfaces; typically formed by endochondral ossification
Which sutures will interlock and overlap at their edges/
Which sutures demonstrate non-interlock, but will overlap at their edges?
Which sutures will neither interlock nor overlap at their edges?
What were the classifications of sutura vera based on Latin groupings?
Serrate, dentist late and limbous
What were the classifications of sutura notha based on Latin groupings?
Squamous and harmonia
What is the classification of a joint with a "fissure-like" condition?
What are the typical examples of the serrate suture?
Most of the Sagittal suture and the metopic suture
What are the typical examples of the denticulate suture?
Lambdoid suture and posterior part of the serrate suture
What are the typical examples of the limbous suture?
The inferior part of the coronal suture
What are the typical examples of the squamous suture?
Most of the temporo-parietal suture
What are the typical examples of the plane suture or harmonia suture?
Cruciate suture made u of the intermaxillary, interpalatine, and palato-maxillary sutures
What are the examples of the schindylesis type of suture?
Sphenoid-ethmoid-vomer articulation, the palatine-maxilla-vomer articulation
What are the examples of the gomphosis joint?
Maxilla-root of tooth; mandible- root of tooth
What is the appearance of the intersection of the coronal and Sagittal sutures called?
What is the appearance of the intersection of the lambdoid and Sagittal sutures called?
What is the glabella?
The elevation of bone over the frontal sinus between the orbits?
What is the name given to the outline of the nasal cavity at; the front of the skull?
What is the name given to the alveolar jugum of the canine tooth in the maxilla?
What forms a bullet-like chin?
A large mental protuberance
What forms an indented chin?
Well developed bilateral mental tubercles and a slight mental protuberance
What is the tip of the external occipital protuberance called?
What is the name of the linear elevation lateral to the external occipital protuberance?
Superior nuchal line
What is the appearance of suture intersections just above the zygomatic arch called?
What is the appearance of suture intersections just above the mastoid proces called?
What points on the skull are used to measure the skull size?
The nasion, vertex, inion, and gnathion
What points on the skull are used to measure cranial vault capacity?
The nasion, vertex, and inion
What is the appearance of the suture intersections over the hard palate called?
The cruciate or cruciform suture
What constitutes the bony floor of the anterior cranial fossa?
Orbital plates of frontal bone, crista galli and cribriform plate of ethmoid
What Ostia are observed in the anterior cranial fossa?
Cribriform plate, anterior and posterior ethmoid foramina and Foramen cecum
What asses through the cribriform plate?
Fill olfactoria of cranial nerve I, the olfactory nerve
What passes through the Foramen cecum?
An emissary vein
What is the posterior boundary of the middle cranial fossa?
Superior border of petrous part of temporal bone, posterior clinoid processes and dorsum sella of sphenoid bone
What prominent parts of the brain rest on the middle cranial fossa?
Temporal poles of temporal lobes of cerebrum, hypophysis cerebri, optic chiasma
What bony feature is prominent in the median plane of the middle cranial fossa?
What are the parts of the sella turcica?
Anterior clinoid processes, sphenoidal jugum, posterior clinoid processes, dorsum sella, and hypophysial fossa of sphenoid bone
What forms the roof of the sella turcica?
What neural structure occupies the sella turcica?
Hypophysis cerebri or pituitary gland
What is the location for the hypophysis cerebri or pituitary gland?
Sella turcica of the sphenoid
Which cranial nerves exit the skull via middle cranial fossa Ostia?
CN II, III, IV, V, and VI
What are the contents of the optic canal?
The optic nerve and ophthalmic artery
What are the contents of the superior orbital fissure?
The ophthalmic veins, the oculomotor nerve, the trochlear nerve, the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve, and the abducent nerve
The maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve exits the middle cranial fossa via which opening?
The Foramen rotundum
What are the contents of the Foramen ovale?
The mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (Vc) and the lesser petrosal branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve
The mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve exits the middle cranial fossa via which opening?
The Foramen ovale
What are the contents of the Foramen spinosum?
The nervus spinosus from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve and the middle meningeal artery
What opening allows a branch of the cranial nerve Vc to enter the middle cranial fossa form the infra temporal region?
The Foramen spinosum
What bones converge to form the Foramen lacerum?
The temporal, sphenoid and occipital bones
What are the contents of the Foramen lacerum?
The internal carotid artery, the carotid sympathetic nerve plexus, and a venous plexus
What are the contents of the carotid canal?
The internal carotid artery and the carotid sympathetic nerve plexus
What are the contents of the hiatus for the greater (superficial) petrosal nerve?
The greater (superficial) petrosal nerve, a branch of the facial nerve
What are the contents of the Vidian canal/pterygoid canal?
The vidian nerve or the nerve of the pterygoid canal
What are the contents of the hiatus for the lesser petrosal nerve?
The lesser petrosal nerve, a branch of the tympanic plexus from the glossopharyngeal nerve
How will the lesser petrosal nerve typically exit the middle cranial fossa?
The Foramen ovale
Which Ostia will to exit the skull form the middle cranial fossa in the living person?
The Foramen lacerum, the hiatus for the greater (superficial) petrosal nerve and the hiatus for the lesser petrosal nerve
What forms the roof of the posterior cranial fossa?
The tentorium cerebelli
What part of the central nerve system occupies the posterior cranial fossa?
The cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata
Which cranial nerves exit posterior cranial fossa Ostia?
Cranial nerve VII (facial), VII (vestibulocochlear), IX (glossopharyngeal), X (vagus), XI (spinal accessory) and XII (hypoglossal)
Which arteries arise in the posterior cranial fossa and descend through the Foramen magnum to supply the spinal cord?
Anterior and posterior spinal arteries
What are the contents of the internal acoustic meatus?
Cranial nerve VII (facial nerve), VII (vestibulocochlear/auditory nerve), the nervus intermedius/nerve of Wrisberg/sensory root of VII and the motor root of VII, the vestibular and cochlear roots of VII and the internal auditory/internal labyrinthine artery and vein
What are the contents of the jugular foramen?
The jugular bulb, the inferior petrosal sinus, the tympanic body/tympanic glomus or jugular body/jugular glomus, CN IX (glossopharyngeal), X (vagus) and XI (spinal accessory)
What cranial nerves are located within the jugular Foramen?
Cranial nerves IX (glossopharyngeal), X(vagus), and XI (spinal accessory)
What are the contents of the hypoglossal canal?
Cranial nerve XII (hypoglossal)
What are the contents of the condylar canal?
An emissary vein connecting the sigmoid dural venous sinus and the vertebral venous plexus
What are the principal sources of blood to the scalp?
Internal carotid and external carotid artery branches
What branches of the external carotid artery ramify in the scalp?
Occipital, posterior auricular, and superficial temporal arteries .... OPS
Branches of nerves from what parts of the CNS innervate the scalp?
Both cranial and spinal nerves
What name is given to the trigeminal nerve?
The great sensory nerve of the face
Which divisions of the trigeminal nerve receive sensory info form the scalp?
All 3 divisions: opthalmic nerve, maxillary nerve, and mandibular nerve
Which ventral rami branches supply the scalp?
Greater auricular and lesser occipital nerves?
Which ventral rami nerve(s) and cord levels of origin supply the scalp?
Greater auricular nerve - C2,C3 ventral rami branches; lesser occipital nerve - C2 (C3) ventral rami branches
Which dorsal ramus nerve branch (name and cord level of origin) supplies the scalp?
Greater occipital nerve - C2,C3 communicating ramus
Motor pathways to skeletal muscle derived form the branchial arches are given what name?
Branchial efferent (BE) pathways
What type of motor fibers to skeletal muscle are given off by the facial nerve?
Branchial efferent (BE)
What are the lymph nodes located along the base of the head collectively called?
Collar chain nodes
What is the third layer of the scalp associated with?
Muscular component of the scalp
What muscle(s) are specifically associated with the scalp?
Frontalis and occipitalis bellies of the epicranius muscle
What is unusual/unique about the muscles of the face?
They do not act as lever muscles; they do not attach to bone at both origin and insertion
Which muscles lack any attachment to bone?
Orbicularis oris, procerus and risorius
Most of the seventh cranial nerve will exit the skull via what opening?
The stylomastoid Foramen
What is the source of innervation for all muscles of facial expression?
Facial nerve branches
Which divisions of the trigeminal nerve receive sensory information form the face?
All 3 divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular nerve
What opening(s) are located along the superior wall of the orbit?
What is the name given to the medial wall of the orbit?
What features may be observed on the medial wall of the orbit?
Lacrimal groove, fossa for the lacrimal sac, anterior ethmoid Foramen and posterior ethmoid Foramen
What opening(S) are located along the lateral wall of the orbit?
Superior orbital fissure
What opening(s) are located along the inferior wall of the orbit?
Inferior orbital fissure
Wha tis contained in the inferior orbital fissure?
Maxillary division of trigeminal nerve
What are the layers of the eyelid?
Skin, orbicularis oculi muscle, tarsal plate/tarsus and palpebral conjunctiva
What are the names given to the modified sebaceous gland in the tarsus of the eyelid?
Tarsal or Meibomian gland
What is the function of the Meibomian gland?
Produces a thick, hydrophobic substance that prevents tears form overflowing onto the cheeks along the margin of the eyelid
What are the names given to the modified sebaceous gland of the palpebra?
Tarsal gland or Meibomian glan and ciliary gland
What is the name given to the angle formed between the superior and inferior eyelids at their medial and lateral margins?
What is the name given to the elevation at the medial canthus?
What is the crescent-shaped appearance of the conjunctiva at the medial canthus called?
Plica semilumaris conjunctiva
What feature(S) may be found ar the medial canthus?
Epicanthus/epicanthal fold/palpebronasal fold/Mongolian fold, lacrimal caruncle, lacrimal lake and plica semilumaris conjunctiva
What is the name given to the opening at the lacrimal papilla?
The lacrimal punctum is continuous with what structure?
What is the drainage pattern of tears?
Lacrimal punctum, lacrimal canaliculus, lacrimal sac, nasalacrimal duct, and inferior nasal meatus
Visceral Efferent (VE) pathways innervate what structures?
Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glandular tissues
What specific pathways are IDed with Visceral Efferent (VE) innervation?
Sympathetic and parasympathetic motor pathways
Which cranial nerves are involved in the Visceral Efferent (VE) parasympathetic pathway to the lacrimal gland?
Facial and trigeminal (maxillary and ophthalmic divisions/branches)
Visceral efferent fibers conveyed in the 7th CN originate from which nucleus?
Superior salivatory nucleus
Preganglionic visceral efferent fibers of cranial nerve VII will exit the pons in what nerve?
Nervus intermedius, nerve of Wrisberg, sensory root of facial nerve
What are the names of the ganglion of synapse in the efferent pathway to the lacrimal gland?
Pterygopalatine ganglion, sphenopalatine ganglion, Meckel's ganglion
Parasympathetic stimulation of blood vessels in the lacrimal gland will result in what events?
Vasodilatation of blood vessels, increased availability of water to secretory units, thinner or more watery product in lumen
The sympathetic pathway to the lacrimal gland will involve what neural components?
Spinal nerves Nasdaq a neurovascular plexus around blood vessels
What is the origin for the sympathetic pathway to the lacrimal gland?
Lateral horn/intermedia lateral cell column T1,T2
What is the target of the preganglionic sympathetic visceral efferent (VE) fiber in the pathway to the lacrimal gland?
The VE fiber ascends to the superior cervical ganglion to synapse
What is the pathway for the psotganglionic sympathetic visceral efferent (VE) fiber to the lacrimal gland?
It joins internal carotid artery neurovascular plexus and continues along the ophthalmic artery to the lacrimal gland where it synapses
Sympathetic stimulation of the lacrimal gland will result in what events?
Vasoconstriction of blood vessels, limited availability of water to secretory units, more viscous or thicker product formed in glandular lumen
What are the names of the layers of the eyeball?
Fibrous tunic, uveal tract and retina
What are the parts of the fibrous tunic of the eyeball?
Cornea and sclera
What are the parts o the uveal tract of the eyeball?
Iris, ciliary body, choroid and pupil
What muscles are present in the iris?
Sphincter pupillae and dilator pupillae
What is the innervation of the sphincter pupillae?
Oculomotor nerve, parasympathetic pathway
What is the innervation of the ciliaris muscle?
Oculomotor nerve, parasympathetic pathway
What are the receptor neurons of the second cranial nerve?
Rod and cone photoreceptor cells
Wha tis the function of the rod cell?
Provide vision in dim light conditions
What is the functions of the cone cell?
Provide vision in bright light conditions and mediate color vision
What is the most numerous photoreceptor cell?
What forms the optic nerve?
Axons of ganglion cells
What is the location of the anterior chamber of the eyebal?
Between the cornea and iris
What is the location of the posterior chamber of the eyeball?
Between the iris and lens
What is contained in the anterior chamber of the eyeball?
Which type of vision is accomplished by action of the ciliaris muscle?
What is the name given to the chamber behind the lens?
What is the location of the vitreous chamber?
Behind the lens, in front of the retina
What fills the vitreous chamber?
What is the common characteristic regarding the insertion of both oblique extraoccular muscles?
Both insert onto sclera on the lateral margin of the eyeball behind the coronal equator
What is the common characteristic concerning the insertion of the superior and inferior Rectus extraoccular muscles?
They insert onto the sclera of the eyeball in front of the coronal equator and are displaced slightly medially
Motor pathways to skeletal muscle derived from the somites are given what name?
Somatic efferent (SE) pathways
What is the embryonic origin of the extraoccular muscles or extrinsic muscles of the eyeball?
The skeletal muscle is derived from the somites hence somatic efferent (SE)
Which nerves will innervate specific extrinsic/extraoccular muscles?
Occulmotor- superior Rectus, medial Rectus, inferior Rectus, and inferior oblique; trochlear - superior oblique; abducens/abducent - lateral Rectus
Which extrinsic muscle(s) of the eye is/are innervated by the III CN?
Medial, inferior, superior Rectus and inferior oblique
Somatic efferent fibers form the left nucleus of the fourth CN will have an apparent origin form which side?
The right side
What are the two unique features of the IV CN?
It is the only cranial with an apparent origin form the dorsal surface of the brain; its the only cranial efferent nerve to decussate within the midbrain from its nucleus
Intrinsic muscles of the eyeball are innervated by with Visceral Effernet (VE) pathways?
Ciliaris and sphincter pupillae are innervated by parasympathetic a; dilator pupillae is innervated by sympathetics
Which Visceral Efferent (VE) pathway is conveyed in the third cranial nerve?
A parasympathetic motor pathway
ID the components of the area sympathetic efferent pathway of the 3rd cranial nerve beginning with the nucleus of origin and continuing to the target organ(s).
Accessory nucleus of Edlinger/Westphal, preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers, oculomotor nerve, ciliary ganglion synapse, postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers, short ciliary nerves, sphincter pupillae & ciliaris muscles; synapse
What is the location of the synapse for preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the third cranial nerve?
Which branch of the internal carotid artery supplies the orbit?
What is unique about the vascular supply of the retina?
A single vessel supplies it
What vessel supplies the inner tunic of the eyeball?
Central artery of the retina
Which branches of the nasociliary nerve will edit the medial wall of the orbit?
Anterior ethmoidal and posterior ethmoidal nerves
What is the rounded outer rim of the auricle called?
The depression under the rim of the helix of the external ear is called?
What is formed between the crura of the anti helix of the external ear?
What feature is between the inferior crus of the anithelix adds the helix of the auricle?
What is the name given to the "goats beard" of the auricle?
What is the name of the rounded elevation superior to the lobule of the auricle?
What is the name given to the palpable posterior projection corresponding to the triangular fossa of the auricle?
What is the name given to the palpable posterior projection corresponding to the concha of the auricle?
What is the name of the palpable posterior projection of the eminentia concha of the auricle?
ID the extrinsic muscle of the auricle.
The anterior, superior & posterior auricular and temporopariettalis
Which cranial nerve will innervate the muscles of the auricle?
The facial nerve
Which branches of the external carotid artery supply the auricle?
Occipital, posterior auricular, superficial temporal arteries....OPS
Sensory innervation of the auricle is derived form which nerves?
Greater auricular (ventral rami C2, C3), lesser occipital nerve (ventral rami C2, possibly C3), auriculotemporal (mandibular division, trigeminal), posterior auricular cutaneous nerve (facial), auricular nerve (vagus)
The lateral 3rd of the external acoustic meatus is protected by
What part of the external acoustic meatus is protected by bone?
The medial 2/3
Skin lining the external acoustic meatus contains what modified sebaceous glands?
Vascularization of the external acoustic meatus is derived from which branch(es) of the external carotid artery?
Posterior auricular artery, internal maxillary artery, superficial a temporal artery ... PIS
Sensory innervation form the external acoustic meatus is carried in which cranial nerves?
Trigeminal and vagus nerves
What are the characteristics of the parotid gland?
It is lobulated, yellowish, encapsulated and an exocrine gland
What muscle will the parotid gland duct/Stensen's duct open into?
What vein is formed within the parotid gland?
The retro mandibular vein
Within the parotid gland what does the facial nerve form?
The facial nerve plexus
What branch of the facial nerve penetrates the parotid gland, but is not given off within it?
The chorda tympani nerve
What cranial nerves will be utilized in parasympathetic innervation of the parotid gland?
The glossopharyngeal and trigeminal nerves
Preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers from the 9th CN will synapse in which ganglion?
Otic ganglion or Arnold's ganglion
What forms the floor of the temporal region?
Pterion (sphenoid, parietal, temporal, frontal bones)
The temporal is muscle is innervated by which specific branch(es) of the trigeminal nerve?
Anterior and posterior deep temporal nerves (mandibular division)
What are the contents of the infra temporal region?
Media & lateral pterygoid muscles, inter annul maxillary artery & branches, pterygoid venous plexus, internal maxillary vein, branches of the trigeminal & facial nerves, and the otic ganglion
ID the muscles of mastication.
Temporalis, masseter, medial and lateral pterygoid
Which parasympathetic ganglion is located in the infra temporal region?
The otic ganglion
The otic ganglion is an example of what type of ganglion?
Parasympathetic motor ganglion
The otic ganglion is part of the neural pathway to what target organ?
The parotid gland
What joint classifications of the temporomandibular joint/
Complex joint, synovial (diarthrosis) condylar, synovial (diarthrosis) bicondylar, synovial (diarthrosis) arthrodia and synovial (diarthrosis) ginglymus
What are the attachment sites of the stylomandibular ligament?
Styloid process of the temporal bone to the angle of the mandible
What are the attachment sites of the sphenomandibular ligament?
The spine of the sphenoid bone to the lingula of the mandible
What does the sphenomandibular ligament represent?
A remnant of Meckel's cartilage of the first branchial arch
What muscles act to depress the mandible or open the mouth?
Lateral pterygoid along with the supra hyoid and infra hyoid muscle
What muscles act to retract the mandible or pull the chin back?
Which ganglion is the largest parasympathetic ganglion of the head?
The sphenopalatine, pterygopalatine or Meckel's ganglion
What neural pathway is the pterygopalatine/sphenopalatine ganglion associated with?
Parasympathetic innervation of the lacrimal gland
What is the name given to the space between the lips and teeth?
The labial vestibule
What is the name given to the space between the cheeks and the teeth?
The buccal vestibule
What is the name given to the junction between the skin and the red region of the lip?
The vermillion border
What is unique about the human lips?
The natural red color
What is the name given to the median depression of the upper lip?
What is the name given to the red region of the human lip?
The vermilion zone
What is the name give to the depression extending form the nasal ala to the corner of the upper lip?
The nasolabial groove or the nasolabial sulcus
What is the name given to the horizontal furrow between the lower lip and the chin?
The mentolabial groove
What is the name given to the union o fate upper and lower lip at the corner of the mouth?
The labial commisssure
What is the name given to the attaching material in the median plane form the lip to the gingiva proper?
The superior labial frenulum or the inferior labial frenulum
What is the posterior boundary of the anterior cranial fossa?
A line drawn along the lesser wing of the sphenoid, anterior clinoid processes, and sphenoidal jugum
Meningeal nerves in the Foramen magnum are derived from which cord levels?
C1-C3 cord levels
What is the ciliary gland?
The modified sebaceous glands at the base of the eyelash
What is the name given to the inner mucous membrane of the eyelid?
What is an/a epicanthus/epicanthal/palpebronasal fold, Mongolian fold?
Tissue forming the rounded margin of the medial canthus
What is the name given to the slit-like opening formed between the eyelids?
What is the name given to the elevation at the medial margin of the eyelid?
Superior lacrimal papilla or inferior lacrimal papilla
What is the primary afferent neuron of the 2nd cranial nerve?
The rounded inner rim of the external ear is called the _____.
The anithelix of the exeternal ear divides to form the _______.
Superior crus and inferior crus of the antihelix
What cranial nerves are involved in the parasympathetic pathway to the submandibular glands?
Branches of the facial nerve and the mandibular division of the trigeminal
Which branch of the 7th cranial nerve will convey preganglionic parasympathetic visceral efferent (VE) fibers from the temporal bone in the pathway to the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands?
Chorda tympani nerve