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Flashcards in The Head Deck (216):
1

Excluding the auditory ossicles, how many bones form the skull?

22 bones

2

What is the cranium?

The skull minus the mandible

3

What is the clavaria?

The skull cap

4

How many bones form the neurocranium?

8 bones

5

What bones form the neurocranium?

Frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid and ethmoid

6

How many bones form the facial skeleton?

14 bones

7

What are the four subclassifications of synarthrosis joints based on Latin groupings?

Suture, gomphosis, schindylesis and syndesmosis

8

What are the characteristics of sutura vera (true sutures)?

Sutures demonstrating interlocking of the adjacent bone surfaces; typically formed by intramembranous ossification

9

What are the characteristics of sutura notha (false sutures)?

Sutures lacking interlocking of adjacent bone surfaces; typically formed by endochondral ossification

10

Which sutures will interlock and overlap at their edges/

Limbous sutures

11

Which sutures demonstrate non-interlock, but will overlap at their edges?

Squamous sutures

12

Which sutures will neither interlock nor overlap at their edges?

Harmonica sutures

13

What were the classifications of sutura vera based on Latin groupings?

Serrate, dentist late and limbous

14

What were the classifications of sutura notha based on Latin groupings?

Squamous and harmonia

15

What is the classification of a joint with a "fissure-like" condition?

Schindylesis

16

What are the typical examples of the serrate suture?

Most of the Sagittal suture and the metopic suture

17

What are the typical examples of the denticulate suture?

Lambdoid suture and posterior part of the serrate suture

18

What are the typical examples of the limbous suture?

The inferior part of the coronal suture

19

What are the typical examples of the squamous suture?

Most of the temporo-parietal suture

20

What are the typical examples of the plane suture or harmonia suture?

Cruciate suture made u of the intermaxillary, interpalatine, and palato-maxillary sutures

21

What are the examples of the schindylesis type of suture?

Sphenoid-ethmoid-vomer articulation, the palatine-maxilla-vomer articulation

22

What are the examples of the gomphosis joint?

Maxilla-root of tooth; mandible- root of tooth

23

What is the appearance of the intersection of the coronal and Sagittal sutures called?

The bergma

24

What is the appearance of the intersection of the lambdoid and Sagittal sutures called?

The lambda

25

What is the glabella?

The elevation of bone over the frontal sinus between the orbits?

26

What is the name given to the outline of the nasal cavity at; the front of the skull?

Piriform aperture

27

What is the name given to the alveolar jugum of the canine tooth in the maxilla?

Canine eminence

28

What forms a bullet-like chin?

A large mental protuberance

29

What forms an indented chin?

Well developed bilateral mental tubercles and a slight mental protuberance

30

What is the tip of the external occipital protuberance called?

The inion

31

What is the name of the linear elevation lateral to the external occipital protuberance?

Superior nuchal line

32

What is the appearance of suture intersections just above the zygomatic arch called?

The pterion

33

What is the appearance of suture intersections just above the mastoid proces called?

The asterion

34

What points on the skull are used to measure the skull size?

The nasion, vertex, inion, and gnathion

35

What points on the skull are used to measure cranial vault capacity?

The nasion, vertex, and inion

36

What is the appearance of the suture intersections over the hard palate called?

The cruciate or cruciform suture

37

What constitutes the bony floor of the anterior cranial fossa?

Orbital plates of frontal bone, crista galli and cribriform plate of ethmoid

38

What Ostia are observed in the anterior cranial fossa?

Cribriform plate, anterior and posterior ethmoid foramina and Foramen cecum

39

What asses through the cribriform plate?

Fill olfactoria of cranial nerve I, the olfactory nerve

40

What passes through the Foramen cecum?

An emissary vein

41

What is the posterior boundary of the middle cranial fossa?

Superior border of petrous part of temporal bone, posterior clinoid processes and dorsum sella of sphenoid bone

42

What prominent parts of the brain rest on the middle cranial fossa?

Temporal poles of temporal lobes of cerebrum, hypophysis cerebri, optic chiasma

43

What bony feature is prominent in the median plane of the middle cranial fossa?

Sella turcica

44

What are the parts of the sella turcica?

Anterior clinoid processes, sphenoidal jugum, posterior clinoid processes, dorsum sella, and hypophysial fossa of sphenoid bone

45

What forms the roof of the sella turcica?

Diaphragma sella

46

What neural structure occupies the sella turcica?

Hypophysis cerebri or pituitary gland

47

What is the location for the hypophysis cerebri or pituitary gland?

Sella turcica of the sphenoid

48

Which cranial nerves exit the skull via middle cranial fossa Ostia?

CN II, III, IV, V, and VI

49

What are the contents of the optic canal?

The optic nerve and ophthalmic artery

50

What are the contents of the superior orbital fissure?

The ophthalmic veins, the oculomotor nerve, the trochlear nerve, the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve, and the abducent nerve

51

The maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve exits the middle cranial fossa via which opening?

The Foramen rotundum

52

What are the contents of the Foramen ovale?

The mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (Vc) and the lesser petrosal branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve

53

The mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve exits the middle cranial fossa via which opening?

The Foramen ovale

54

What are the contents of the Foramen spinosum?

The nervus spinosus from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve and the middle meningeal artery

55

What opening allows a branch of the cranial nerve Vc to enter the middle cranial fossa form the infra temporal region?

The Foramen spinosum

56

What bones converge to form the Foramen lacerum?

The temporal, sphenoid and occipital bones

57

What are the contents of the Foramen lacerum?

The internal carotid artery, the carotid sympathetic nerve plexus, and a venous plexus

58

What are the contents of the carotid canal?

The internal carotid artery and the carotid sympathetic nerve plexus

59

What are the contents of the hiatus for the greater (superficial) petrosal nerve?

The greater (superficial) petrosal nerve, a branch of the facial nerve

60

What are the contents of the Vidian canal/pterygoid canal?

The vidian nerve or the nerve of the pterygoid canal

61

What are the contents of the hiatus for the lesser petrosal nerve?

The lesser petrosal nerve, a branch of the tympanic plexus from the glossopharyngeal nerve

62

How will the lesser petrosal nerve typically exit the middle cranial fossa?

The Foramen ovale

63

Which Ostia will to exit the skull form the middle cranial fossa in the living person?

The Foramen lacerum, the hiatus for the greater (superficial) petrosal nerve and the hiatus for the lesser petrosal nerve

64

What forms the roof of the posterior cranial fossa?

The tentorium cerebelli

65

What part of the central nerve system occupies the posterior cranial fossa?

The cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata

66

Which cranial nerves exit posterior cranial fossa Ostia?

Cranial nerve VII (facial), VII (vestibulocochlear), IX (glossopharyngeal), X (vagus), XI (spinal accessory) and XII (hypoglossal)

67

Which arteries arise in the posterior cranial fossa and descend through the Foramen magnum to supply the spinal cord?

Anterior and posterior spinal arteries

68

What are the contents of the internal acoustic meatus?

Cranial nerve VII (facial nerve), VII (vestibulocochlear/auditory nerve), the nervus intermedius/nerve of Wrisberg/sensory root of VII and the motor root of VII, the vestibular and cochlear roots of VII and the internal auditory/internal labyrinthine artery and vein

69

What are the contents of the jugular foramen?

The jugular bulb, the inferior petrosal sinus, the tympanic body/tympanic glomus or jugular body/jugular glomus, CN IX (glossopharyngeal), X (vagus) and XI (spinal accessory)

70

What cranial nerves are located within the jugular Foramen?

Cranial nerves IX (glossopharyngeal), X(vagus), and XI (spinal accessory)

71

What are the contents of the hypoglossal canal?

Cranial nerve XII (hypoglossal)

72

What are the contents of the condylar canal?

An emissary vein connecting the sigmoid dural venous sinus and the vertebral venous plexus

73

What are the principal sources of blood to the scalp?

Internal carotid and external carotid artery branches

74

What branches of the external carotid artery ramify in the scalp?

Occipital, posterior auricular, and superficial temporal arteries .... OPS

75

Branches of nerves from what parts of the CNS innervate the scalp?

Both cranial and spinal nerves

76

What name is given to the trigeminal nerve?

The great sensory nerve of the face

77

Which divisions of the trigeminal nerve receive sensory info form the scalp?

All 3 divisions: opthalmic nerve, maxillary nerve, and mandibular nerve

78

Which ventral rami branches supply the scalp?

Greater auricular and lesser occipital nerves?

79

Which ventral rami nerve(s) and cord levels of origin supply the scalp?

Greater auricular nerve - C2,C3 ventral rami branches; lesser occipital nerve - C2 (C3) ventral rami branches

80

Which dorsal ramus nerve branch (name and cord level of origin) supplies the scalp?

Greater occipital nerve - C2,C3 communicating ramus

81

Motor pathways to skeletal muscle derived form the branchial arches are given what name?

Branchial efferent (BE) pathways

82

What type of motor fibers to skeletal muscle are given off by the facial nerve?

Branchial efferent (BE)

83

What are the lymph nodes located along the base of the head collectively called?

Collar chain nodes

84

What is the third layer of the scalp associated with?

Muscular component of the scalp

85

What muscle(s) are specifically associated with the scalp?

Frontalis and occipitalis bellies of the epicranius muscle

86

What is unusual/unique about the muscles of the face?

They do not act as lever muscles; they do not attach to bone at both origin and insertion

87

Which muscles lack any attachment to bone?

Orbicularis oris, procerus and risorius

88

Most of the seventh cranial nerve will exit the skull via what opening?

The stylomastoid Foramen

89

What is the source of innervation for all muscles of facial expression?

Facial nerve branches

90

Which divisions of the trigeminal nerve receive sensory information form the face?

All 3 divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular nerve

91

What opening(s) are located along the superior wall of the orbit?

Optic canal

92

What is the name given to the medial wall of the orbit?

Lamina papyracea

93

What features may be observed on the medial wall of the orbit?

Lacrimal groove, fossa for the lacrimal sac, anterior ethmoid Foramen and posterior ethmoid Foramen

94

What opening(S) are located along the lateral wall of the orbit?

Superior orbital fissure

95

What opening(s) are located along the inferior wall of the orbit?

Inferior orbital fissure

96

Wha tis contained in the inferior orbital fissure?

Maxillary division of trigeminal nerve

97

What are the layers of the eyelid?

Skin, orbicularis oculi muscle, tarsal plate/tarsus and palpebral conjunctiva

98

What are the names given to the modified sebaceous gland in the tarsus of the eyelid?

Tarsal or Meibomian gland

99

What is the function of the Meibomian gland?

Produces a thick, hydrophobic substance that prevents tears form overflowing onto the cheeks along the margin of the eyelid

100

What are the names given to the modified sebaceous gland of the palpebra?

Tarsal gland or Meibomian glan and ciliary gland

101

What is the name given to the angle formed between the superior and inferior eyelids at their medial and lateral margins?

Canthus

102

What is the name given to the elevation at the medial canthus?

Lacrimal caruncle

103

What is the crescent-shaped appearance of the conjunctiva at the medial canthus called?

Plica semilumaris conjunctiva

104

What feature(S) may be found ar the medial canthus?

Epicanthus/epicanthal fold/palpebronasal fold/Mongolian fold, lacrimal caruncle, lacrimal lake and plica semilumaris conjunctiva

105

What is the name given to the opening at the lacrimal papilla?

Lacrimal punctum

106

The lacrimal punctum is continuous with what structure?

Lacrimal canaliculus

107

What is the drainage pattern of tears?

Lacrimal punctum, lacrimal canaliculus, lacrimal sac, nasalacrimal duct, and inferior nasal meatus

108

Visceral Efferent (VE) pathways innervate what structures?

Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glandular tissues

109

What specific pathways are IDed with Visceral Efferent (VE) innervation?

Sympathetic and parasympathetic motor pathways

110

Which cranial nerves are involved in the Visceral Efferent (VE) parasympathetic pathway to the lacrimal gland?

Facial and trigeminal (maxillary and ophthalmic divisions/branches)

111

Visceral efferent fibers conveyed in the 7th CN originate from which nucleus?

Superior salivatory nucleus

112

Preganglionic visceral efferent fibers of cranial nerve VII will exit the pons in what nerve?

Nervus intermedius, nerve of Wrisberg, sensory root of facial nerve

113

What are the names of the ganglion of synapse in the efferent pathway to the lacrimal gland?

Pterygopalatine ganglion, sphenopalatine ganglion, Meckel's ganglion

114

Parasympathetic stimulation of blood vessels in the lacrimal gland will result in what events?

Vasodilatation of blood vessels, increased availability of water to secretory units, thinner or more watery product in lumen

115

The sympathetic pathway to the lacrimal gland will involve what neural components?

Spinal nerves Nasdaq a neurovascular plexus around blood vessels

116

What is the origin for the sympathetic pathway to the lacrimal gland?

Lateral horn/intermedia lateral cell column T1,T2

117

What is the target of the preganglionic sympathetic visceral efferent (VE) fiber in the pathway to the lacrimal gland?

The VE fiber ascends to the superior cervical ganglion to synapse

118

What is the pathway for the psotganglionic sympathetic visceral efferent (VE) fiber to the lacrimal gland?

It joins internal carotid artery neurovascular plexus and continues along the ophthalmic artery to the lacrimal gland where it synapses

119

Sympathetic stimulation of the lacrimal gland will result in what events?

Vasoconstriction of blood vessels, limited availability of water to secretory units, more viscous or thicker product formed in glandular lumen

120

What are the names of the layers of the eyeball?

Fibrous tunic, uveal tract and retina

121

What are the parts of the fibrous tunic of the eyeball?

Cornea and sclera

122

What are the parts o the uveal tract of the eyeball?

Iris, ciliary body, choroid and pupil

123

What muscles are present in the iris?

Sphincter pupillae and dilator pupillae

124

What is the innervation of the sphincter pupillae?

Oculomotor nerve, parasympathetic pathway

125

What is the innervation of the ciliaris muscle?

Oculomotor nerve, parasympathetic pathway

126

What are the receptor neurons of the second cranial nerve?

Rod and cone photoreceptor cells

127

Wha tis the function of the rod cell?

Provide vision in dim light conditions

128

What is the functions of the cone cell?

Provide vision in bright light conditions and mediate color vision

129

What is the most numerous photoreceptor cell?

Rod cell

130

What forms the optic nerve?

Axons of ganglion cells

131

What is the location of the anterior chamber of the eyebal?

Between the cornea and iris

132

What is the location of the posterior chamber of the eyeball?

Between the iris and lens

133

What is contained in the anterior chamber of the eyeball?

Aqueous humor

134

Which type of vision is accomplished by action of the ciliaris muscle?

Near vision

135

What is the name given to the chamber behind the lens?

Vitreous chamber

136

What is the location of the vitreous chamber?

Behind the lens, in front of the retina

137

What fills the vitreous chamber?

Vitreous body

138

What is the common characteristic regarding the insertion of both oblique extraoccular muscles?

Both insert onto sclera on the lateral margin of the eyeball behind the coronal equator

139

What is the common characteristic concerning the insertion of the superior and inferior Rectus extraoccular muscles?

They insert onto the sclera of the eyeball in front of the coronal equator and are displaced slightly medially

140

Motor pathways to skeletal muscle derived from the somites are given what name?

Somatic efferent (SE) pathways

141

What is the embryonic origin of the extraoccular muscles or extrinsic muscles of the eyeball?

The skeletal muscle is derived from the somites hence somatic efferent (SE)

142

Which nerves will innervate specific extrinsic/extraoccular muscles?

Occulmotor- superior Rectus, medial Rectus, inferior Rectus, and inferior oblique; trochlear - superior oblique; abducens/abducent - lateral Rectus

143

Which extrinsic muscle(s) of the eye is/are innervated by the III CN?

Medial, inferior, superior Rectus and inferior oblique

144

Somatic efferent fibers form the left nucleus of the fourth CN will have an apparent origin form which side?

The right side

145

What are the two unique features of the IV CN?

It is the only cranial with an apparent origin form the dorsal surface of the brain; its the only cranial efferent nerve to decussate within the midbrain from its nucleus

146

Intrinsic muscles of the eyeball are innervated by with Visceral Effernet (VE) pathways?

Ciliaris and sphincter pupillae are innervated by parasympathetic a; dilator pupillae is innervated by sympathetics

147

Which Visceral Efferent (VE) pathway is conveyed in the third cranial nerve?

A parasympathetic motor pathway

148

ID the components of the area sympathetic efferent pathway of the 3rd cranial nerve beginning with the nucleus of origin and continuing to the target organ(s).

Accessory nucleus of Edlinger/Westphal, preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers, oculomotor nerve, ciliary ganglion synapse, postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers, short ciliary nerves, sphincter pupillae & ciliaris muscles; synapse

149

What is the location of the synapse for preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the third cranial nerve?

Ciliary ganglion

150

Which branch of the internal carotid artery supplies the orbit?

Ophthalmic artery

151

What is unique about the vascular supply of the retina?

A single vessel supplies it

152

What vessel supplies the inner tunic of the eyeball?

Central artery of the retina

153

Which branches of the nasociliary nerve will edit the medial wall of the orbit?

Anterior ethmoidal and posterior ethmoidal nerves

154

What is the rounded outer rim of the auricle called?

The helix

155

The depression under the rim of the helix of the external ear is called?

Scaphoid fossa

156

What is formed between the crura of the anti helix of the external ear?

Triangular fossa

157

What feature is between the inferior crus of the anithelix adds the helix of the auricle?

Cymba concha

158

What is the name given to the "goats beard" of the auricle?

Tragus

159

What is the name of the rounded elevation superior to the lobule of the auricle?

Antitragus

160

What is the name given to the palpable posterior projection corresponding to the triangular fossa of the auricle?

Eminentia triangularis

161

What is the name given to the palpable posterior projection corresponding to the concha of the auricle?

Eminentia concha

162

What is the name of the palpable posterior projection of the eminentia concha of the auricle?

Ponticulus

163

ID the extrinsic muscle of the auricle.

The anterior, superior & posterior auricular and temporopariettalis

164

Which cranial nerve will innervate the muscles of the auricle?

The facial nerve

165

Which branches of the external carotid artery supply the auricle?

Occipital, posterior auricular, superficial temporal arteries....OPS

166

Sensory innervation of the auricle is derived form which nerves?

Greater auricular (ventral rami C2, C3), lesser occipital nerve (ventral rami C2, possibly C3), auriculotemporal (mandibular division, trigeminal), posterior auricular cutaneous nerve (facial), auricular nerve (vagus)

167

The lateral 3rd of the external acoustic meatus is protected by
_____.

Cartilage

168

What part of the external acoustic meatus is protected by bone?

The medial 2/3

169

Skin lining the external acoustic meatus contains what modified sebaceous glands?

Ceruminous glands

170

Vascularization of the external acoustic meatus is derived from which branch(es) of the external carotid artery?

Posterior auricular artery, internal maxillary artery, superficial a temporal artery ... PIS

171

Sensory innervation form the external acoustic meatus is carried in which cranial nerves?

Trigeminal and vagus nerves

172

What are the characteristics of the parotid gland?

It is lobulated, yellowish, encapsulated and an exocrine gland

173

What muscle will the parotid gland duct/Stensen's duct open into?

The buccinator

174

What vein is formed within the parotid gland?

The retro mandibular vein

175

Within the parotid gland what does the facial nerve form?

The facial nerve plexus

176

What branch of the facial nerve penetrates the parotid gland, but is not given off within it?

The chorda tympani nerve

177

What cranial nerves will be utilized in parasympathetic innervation of the parotid gland?

The glossopharyngeal and trigeminal nerves

178

Preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers from the 9th CN will synapse in which ganglion?

Otic ganglion or Arnold's ganglion

179

What forms the floor of the temporal region?

Pterion (sphenoid, parietal, temporal, frontal bones)

180

The temporal is muscle is innervated by which specific branch(es) of the trigeminal nerve?

Anterior and posterior deep temporal nerves (mandibular division)

181

What are the contents of the infra temporal region?

Media & lateral pterygoid muscles, inter annul maxillary artery & branches, pterygoid venous plexus, internal maxillary vein, branches of the trigeminal & facial nerves, and the otic ganglion

182

ID the muscles of mastication.

Temporalis, masseter, medial and lateral pterygoid

183

Which parasympathetic ganglion is located in the infra temporal region?

The otic ganglion

184

The otic ganglion is an example of what type of ganglion?

Parasympathetic motor ganglion

185

The otic ganglion is part of the neural pathway to what target organ?

The parotid gland

186

What joint classifications of the temporomandibular joint/

Complex joint, synovial (diarthrosis) condylar, synovial (diarthrosis) bicondylar, synovial (diarthrosis) arthrodia and synovial (diarthrosis) ginglymus

187

What are the attachment sites of the stylomandibular ligament?

Styloid process of the temporal bone to the angle of the mandible

188

What are the attachment sites of the sphenomandibular ligament?

The spine of the sphenoid bone to the lingula of the mandible

189

What does the sphenomandibular ligament represent?

A remnant of Meckel's cartilage of the first branchial arch

190

What muscles act to depress the mandible or open the mouth?

Lateral pterygoid along with the supra hyoid and infra hyoid muscle

191

What muscles act to retract the mandible or pull the chin back?

Temporalis

192

Which ganglion is the largest parasympathetic ganglion of the head?

The sphenopalatine, pterygopalatine or Meckel's ganglion

193

What neural pathway is the pterygopalatine/sphenopalatine ganglion associated with?

Parasympathetic innervation of the lacrimal gland

194

What is the name given to the space between the lips and teeth?

The labial vestibule

195

What is the name given to the space between the cheeks and the teeth?

The buccal vestibule

196

What is the name given to the junction between the skin and the red region of the lip?

The vermillion border

197

What is unique about the human lips?

The natural red color

198

What is the name given to the median depression of the upper lip?

The philtrum

199

What is the name given to the red region of the human lip?

The vermilion zone

200

What is the name give to the depression extending form the nasal ala to the corner of the upper lip?

The nasolabial groove or the nasolabial sulcus

201

What is the name given to the horizontal furrow between the lower lip and the chin?

The mentolabial groove

202

What is the name given to the union o fate upper and lower lip at the corner of the mouth?

The labial commisssure

203

What is the name given to the attaching material in the median plane form the lip to the gingiva proper?

The superior labial frenulum or the inferior labial frenulum

204

What is the posterior boundary of the anterior cranial fossa?

A line drawn along the lesser wing of the sphenoid, anterior clinoid processes, and sphenoidal jugum

205

Meningeal nerves in the Foramen magnum are derived from which cord levels?

C1-C3 cord levels

206

What is the ciliary gland?

The modified sebaceous glands at the base of the eyelash

207

What is the name given to the inner mucous membrane of the eyelid?

Palpebral conjunctiva

208

What is an/a epicanthus/epicanthal/palpebronasal fold, Mongolian fold?

Tissue forming the rounded margin of the medial canthus

209

What is the name given to the slit-like opening formed between the eyelids?

Palpebral fissure

210

What is the name given to the elevation at the medial margin of the eyelid?

Superior lacrimal papilla or inferior lacrimal papilla

211

What is the primary afferent neuron of the 2nd cranial nerve?

Bipolar cell

212

The rounded inner rim of the external ear is called the _____.

Antihelix

213

The anithelix of the exeternal ear divides to form the _______.

Superior crus and inferior crus of the antihelix

214

What cranial nerves are involved in the parasympathetic pathway to the submandibular glands?

Branches of the facial nerve and the mandibular division of the trigeminal

215

Which branch of the 7th cranial nerve will convey preganglionic parasympathetic visceral efferent (VE) fibers from the temporal bone in the pathway to the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands?

Chorda tympani nerve

216

Which cranial nerve contains the nucleus of origin for the parasymphatic pathway to the parotid gland?

The glossopharyngeal nerve