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Flashcards in Curvatures Of The Vertebral Column Deck (68):
1

What are the names of the anterior curves, secondary curves, and compensatory curves?

Cervical curve and lumbar curve

2

What segmental levels form the cervical curve?

C2-T1

3

What segmental levels form the lumbar curve?

T12-L5

4

What is the traditional time of appearances of the cervical curve said to be?

During the last trimester in utero

5

What is the time during which the 'adult' cervical curve is said to appear?

Within the first year after birth

6

What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult cervicals curve?

1. Centers for vision and equilibrium will appear in the brain
2. Musculature attaching the skull, cervical region, and upper thorax together develops
3. The head is held upright
4. The intervertebral disc height becomes greater anterior than posterior

7

At what age will the infant being to hold the head erect?

Usually between the 3rd and 4th month after birth

8

What is the name given to the integration of visual and motor pathways associated with holding the head erect?

The righting reflex

9

What is the location for the apex of the cervical curve?

Typically between C4 and C5

10

What is the location for the cervical kyphosis?

Between occiput and C1

11

What is the name given to the primary cervical curve?

Cervical kyphosis

12

What is the vertebral relationship between the cervical curve and the cervical enlargement?

Cervical curve C2-T1; cervical enlargement C3-T1

13

What is the time of appearance of the lumbar curve?

Between 12 and 18 months after birth

14

What infant activities are associated with the development of the lumbar curve?

Craving and walking

15

What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult lumbar curve?

1. Crawling will cause the abdomen to put tension on the lumbar region and pulls it forward
2. Muscle development is promoted to compensate for the the swayback of the lumbars
3. Intervertebral disc height will become greater anterior compared to posterior
4. Walking will further promote muscle and intervertebral disc development

16

Which sene is a requirement for holding the head erect, standing, sitting and walking?

Vision

17

What is the gender bias associated with lumbar curve convexity?

Females have a greater convexity of the lumbar curve

18

What is the vertebral relationship between the lumbar curve and the lumbar enlargement?

Lumbar curve t12-L5; lumbar enlargement T9-T12

19

What is the formation of the lateral curve often correlated with?

Faster development of the muscles on the side off handedness

20

What is the time of appearance of the lateral curves?

They appear after 6 years old

21

What locations of lateral curves are recognized?

Cervical, thoracic or dorsal, and lumbar

22

What is the relationship between curve direction and handedness?

A right-handed person has a high probability for a right thoracic, left lumbar curve combination

23

What is the incidence of a right thoracic, left lumbar curve combination in the population?

About 80% of the population demonstrates this

24

What generic names IDed abnormal curves of the vertebral column?

Lordosis, kyphosis, scoliosis

25

What is the definition of lordosis?

A forward bending condition

26

What is the definition of kyphosis?

A humpback or hunchback condition

27

What is the definition of scoliosis?

A warped or crooked condition

28

What is the direction of the curve deviation in lordosis?

To the anterior

29

What is the direction of the curve deviation in kyphosis?

To the posterior

30

What is the direction of the curve deviation in scoliosis?

To the side (it is a lateral curve deviation)

31

What clinical abnormal curvatures of the vertebral column were stressed in class?

Military neck, humpback or hunchback, and swayback

32

What is military neck?

A decreased anterior curve in the cervical region, a straight neck

33

What is humpback or hunchback?

An increased posterior curve in the thoracic region

34

What is swayback?

An increased anterior curve in the lumbar region

35

What is classic classification of military neck?

A kyphosis

36

What is classic classification of humpback or hunchback?

A kyphosis

37

What is the classic classification of swayback?

A lordosis

38

What does the use of the term lordotic try to imply?

A normal cervical and normal lumbar anterior curve

39

What does the use of the term kyphotic try to imply?

A normal thoracic or dorsal and Normal pelvic or sacrococcygeal posterior curve

40

What does the term hyperlordotic infer?

An increase in the anterior cure of the cervical or lumbar region

41

What does the term hypolordotic infer?

A decrease in the anterior curve of the cervical or lumbar region

42

What does the term hyper kyphotic infer?

An increase in etch posterior curve of the thoracic/dorsal or pelvic/sacrococcygeal region

43

What does the term hypo kyphotic infer?

A decrease in the posterior curve of the thoracic/dorsal or pelvic/sacrococcygeal region

44

What are the curve classifications for military neck?

A kyphosis or hypolordotic curve

45

What are the curve classifications for humpback or hunchback?

A kyphosis or hyperkyphotic curve

46

What are the curve classification for swayback?

A lordosis or hyperlordotic curve

47

What are the classifications of scoliosis according to the scoliosis research society?

Magnitude, location, direction, etiology, structural scoliosis and non-structural scoliosis

48

What does magnitude of scoliosis refer to?

The length and angle or the curve deviation on X-Ray

49

What is often used to measure the magnitude of scoliosis?

The Cobb method

50

What does location of scoliosis infer?

The location on the vertebral segment forming the apex of the curve deviation

51

What does direction of scoliosis refer to?

The side the convexity of he curve will bend toward

52

What does etiology of scoliosis mean?

The cause of the scoliosis

53

What is structural scoliosis?

A more radical form of scoliosis, it may worsen, associated with structural deformities of the vertebra or intervertebral disc, frequently has a fixed angle of trunk rotation

54

What is non-structural scoliosis?

A mild form of scoliosis, unlikely to worsen, not associated with structural deformities of the vertebra or intervertebral disc and lack a fixed angle of trunk rotation

55

What are some of the classifications of scoliosis based on etiology?

Congenital, neuromuscular, neurofibromatosis, nerve root irritation, idiopathic

56

What is the classification of scoliosis that is unique to the individual patient?

Idiopathic scoliosis

57

What does idiopathic scoliosis infer?

The scoliosis is unique to the individual, it has no known cause, unknown etiology

58

What is the incidence of idiopathic scoliosis in the population?

1-4%

59

Based on age of onset, what are the types of idiopathic scoliosis?

Infantile, juvenile, and adolescent

60

What is the age range for infantile idiopathic scoliosis?

Form birth to 3 years

61

What is the age range for juvenile idiopathic scoliosis?

3-10 years old

62

What is the age range for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?

Over 10 years

63

ID curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of infantile idiopathic scoliosis.

Left thoracic, male, less than 1% incidence

64

ID curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis.

Right thoracic, females over 6, 12-21% incidence

65

ID curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

Right thoracic or right thoracic and left lumbar, females, and 80% incidence

66

What is the genetic factor associated with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?

An autosomal dominant factor that runs in families

67

What is the relationship between curve deviation, incidence, and curve worsening?

The greater the deviation, the lower the incidence, and the more likely to worsen

68

Which lateral curves are best developed?

Thoracic or dorsal, and lumbar