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Flashcards in Osteology Deck (26):
1

What are the four basic types of tissues in the human body?

Epithelial, muscle, neural and connective tissues

2

What is the function of each type of bone cell?

Osteoblasts - form bone;
Osteocyte - maintain or nurture bone;
Osteoclasts - remodel bone.

3

What are the bone cells embedded in?

An amorphous matrix consisting of ground substance, protein fibers and various minerals

4

What is the primary constituent of the ground substance?

Glycosaminoglycans

5

What is the principle type of protein fiber in bones?

Collagen type I

6

What is the most frequently described deposit in the bone?

Hydroxyapatite

7

What is Wolff's law as it applies to bones?

Living tissue will respond to stressors; bone is formed or absorbed in response to various stressors

8

What three responses of "living" bone were stressed in class?

It has the ability to heal, to remodel under stressors and to age.

9

Bone is the embryo logical derivative of which specific connective tissue?

Mesenchyme and/or cartilage

10

What is the name given to the patterns of ossification in mesenchyme?

Intramembranous ossification

11

What is the timing for the appearance of intramembranous ossification?

From the second to third month in utero

12

What part of the axial skeleton is primarily formed by intramembranous ossification?

The skull

13

Which bone of the appendicular skeleton is partially formed by intramembranous ossification?

The clavicle

14

What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in cartilage?

Endochondral ossification

15

What is the timing for the appearance of ossification in cartilage?

From the second to fifth month in utero.

16

What part of the skull is derived from endochondral ossification A?

Chondrocranium

17

What are names given to the centers of ossification based on time of appearance?

Primary centers of ossification appear before birth
Secondary centers of ossification appear after brith

18

WhT are the primary sources of variation observed in bone?

Sexual dimorphism (gender variation), ontogenetic variation (growth or age variation), geographic or population based variation (ethnic variation), and idiosyncratic variation (individual variation)

19

What type of glycosaminoglycans predominate in bone?

Chondroitin sulfates, keratin sulfates, hyaluronic acid

20

Bone is also the repository for what additional ions?

Sodium, magnesium, fluoride, lead, strontium, and radium

21

Which skull bones are ossified by both endochondral and intramembranous ossification?

The mandible, sphenoid, temporal and occipital bones

22

Which bone of the appendicular skeleton is formed by both endochondral and intramembranous ossification?

The clavicle

23

Mature bone is described as being composed of what areas base on bone density?

Cortical or compact bone and spongy, cancellous or trabecular bone

24

What is the name given to the bone below an articulating surface?

Subchondral bone

25

What is the name of the outer fibro-cellular covering of bone?

The periosteum

26

What is the name given to the Fibro-cellular lining of bone?

The endosteum