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Flashcards in General Organization Of A Vertebra Deck (104):
1

What are the three basic osseous parts of a vertebra?

The vertebral body, vertebral arch, and the apophyseal region

2

What is the general shape of the vertebral body at each region of the spine?

Cervical-rectangular; thoracic-triangular; lumbar - reniform

3

What is the name given to the compact bone at the superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebral body?

Superior epiphyseal rim, inferior epiphyseal rim

4

What is the name given to the cartilage found at the superior and inferior surface of a developing vertebral bod?

Superior and inferior epiphyseal plate

5

What are the names of the openings found around the margin of the vertebral body?

Nutrient foramina or vascular foramina

6

What large opening is usually observed at the back of the vertebral body?

The basivertebral venous Foramen

7

What is the name given to the antierior part of the vertebral arch?

The pedicle

8

What is the name of the feature locate at the upper and lower surfaces of the pedicle?

The superior and inferior vertebral notch or incisure

9

Hat I the generic orientation of the pedicle at each region of the spine?

Cervical - posterolateral
Thoracic- posterior , slightly lateral
Lumbar - posterior

10

All lamina are oriented in what direction?

Posterior and median

11

What is the name given to the overlap of laminae seen on X-Ray?

Shingling

12

What ligament will attach to the lamina?

The ligamentum flavum

13

What is the name given to abnormal bone at the attachment site of the ligamentum flavum?

Accessory bone?

14

What is the name given to the lamina-pedicle junction at each region of the spine?

Cervical - articular pillar
Thoracic and lumbar - pars interarticularis

15

What is the name given to the junction of the vertebral arch - spinous process on lateral X-Ray?

The spinolaminar junction

16

What is the name given to each apophyseal of the spine?

The transverse apophyseal or process; articular apophysis or process; spinous apophysis or process

17

What is the generic orientation of the transverse process or transverse apophysis at each region of the spine?

Cervical - Anterolateral
Thoracic - posterolateral
Lumbar - lateral

18

All non-rib bearing vertebra of the spine retain what equivalent feature?

The costal element

19

What is the name given to the rounded elevation at the en of the transverse apophysis or transverse process?

The transverse tubercle

20

What will cause the transverse process/transverse apophysis to alter its initial direction in the cervical region?

Cervical spinal nerves are pulled froward and downward to form the cervical and brachial nerve plexuses thus remodeling the ransvere process to accommodate their new position

21

What will cause the transverse process/apophysis to alter its initial direction in the thoracic region?

The growth of the lungs remodel the shape of the ribs which in turn push the transverse processes backward

22

What will the articular process/apophysis support?

The articular facet

23

What is the name given to the joint formed between articular facets of a vertebral couple?

The zygapophysis

24

What is the name given to the bone surface at the front of a zygapophysis?

The superior articular facet

25

What is the name given to the bone surface at he back of a zygapophysis?

The inferior articular facet

26

What are the segmental arteries of the lumbar spine?

The lumbar arteries, iliolumbar artery, lateral sacral artery and median sacral artery

27

What are the segmental arteries of he fifth lumbar vertebra?

The iliolumbar artery, lateral sacral artery and median sacral artery

28

What are the segmental arteries of the sacrum?

The iliolumbar artery, lateral and median sacral artery

29

What segmental levels are supplied by the vertebral artery?

C1-c6

30

What segmental levels are supplied by the ascending cervical artery?

C1-C6

31

What segmental levels are supplied by the deep cervical artery?

C7-T1

32

What segmental levels are supplied by the superior intercostal artery?

T1, T2

33

What segmental levels are supplied by the posterior intercostal artery?

T3-T11

34

What segmental levels are supplied by the subcostal artery?

T12

35

What segmental levels are supplied by the lumbar arteries?

L1-L4

36

What segmental levels are supplied by the median sacral artery?

L5, S1-S5 and coccyx

37

What segmental levels are supplied by the iliolumbar artery?

L5, S1-S5 and coccyx

38

What segmental levels are supplied by the lateral sacral artery/

L5, S1-S5 and coccyx

39

Which vertebra has the greatest number is segmental arteries associated it hit?

L5

40

What are the segmental arteries of L5?

Iliolumbar artery. Median and lateral sacral artery

41

What branch of the segmental artery supplies the vertebra and the paravertebral region?

Dorsospinal artery

42

Which artery is primarily observed in the distal part of the intervertebral Foramen?

Spinal artery

43

What are the branches of the spinal artery?

Osseous arteries, anterior and posterior spinal canal arteries, anterior and posterior medullary feeder arteries, and anterior and posterior radicals arteries

44

Which branches of the spinal artery supply the contents of the epidural space?

Osseous arteries, anterior and posterior spinal canal arteries

45

What arteries are observed in the epidural space near the posterior longitudinal ligament?

Anterior spinal canal artery and plexus

46

What arteries are observed in the epidural space near the ligamentum flavum?

Posterior spinal canal artery and plexus

47

Which branches of the spinal artery supply the contents of the subarachnoid space>

Anterior and oyster riot radicular arteries, anterior and posterior medullary feeder arteries

48

Which vessel will supply up the ventral/anterior nerve rootlet and nerve root?

Anterior radicular artery

49

Which vessel will supply the dorsal/posterior nerve rootlets and nerve root ganglion?

Posterior radicular artery

50

Which artery is now said to enlarge and form the medullary feeder artery?

The radicular artery

51

What is the location and number of medullary feeder arteries present in the adult?

9 anterior and 12 posterior medullary feeder arteries

52

The anterior spinal artery is a branch of which artery?

The vertebral artery

53

Is the anterior spinal artery a single, continuous artery along the length of the spinal cord?

No

54

As the anterior spinal artery continue alon the spinal cord, which arteries unite alon it's length to give the appearance of a single continuous vessel?

Anterior medullary feeder arteries

55

The ouster or spinal arter is a branch of which artery?

The posterior inferior cerebellum artery

56

What is the position of the sterile spinal artery relative to the spinal cord?

It lies in the posterolateral sulcus along the spinal cord

57

As the posterior spinal artery spinal artery continues along the the spinal cord, which arterie untie along the length to give the appearance of a single continuous vessel?

Posterior medullary feeder arteries

58

What forms the arterial case corona above C3?

Right and left anterior spinal arteries, right and left oysters or spinal arteries and 4 communicating arteries

59

What forms the arterial vasa corona below C6?

A median anterior spinal artery, right and left posterior spinal arteries, ad 3 communicating arteries

60

What is the generic name given to arteries that penetrate the spinal cord?

Intrameullary arteries

61

What are the intramedullary branches of the arterial vasa corona?

Pial perforating arteries and central/ventral/sulcal perforating arteries

62

What artery gives off the ventral/central/sulcal perforating arteries>

The anterior spinal artery

63

What arteries are responsible for supplementing the arterial vasa corona along the cord?

Anterior medullary feeders and posterior medullary feeders

64

What vessels drain the spinal cord?

Pial veins

65

What will pial veins drain into?

Venous vasa corona

66

Which vessel form the venous vasa corona?

Right and left anterior longitudinal veins, right and left posterior longitudinal veins, and 4 communicating veins

67

Which vessels will drain the venous vasa corona?

Anterior medullary veins, posterior medullary veins

68

Which vessels will drain the ventral/anterior nerve roots?

Anterior radicular veins

69

What vessel will drain the dorsal/oysters or nerve root ganglion?

Posterior radicular veins

70

What veins will lie in the subarachnoid space?

Pial veins, venous vasa corona, anterior longitudinal veins, posterior longitudinal veins, communication veins, anterior and posterior medullary arteries, anterior and posterior radicular arteries

71

What veins are observed in the epidural space near the posterior longitudinal ligament?

Anterior internal vertebral pleas, basivertebral vein

72

What veins are observed in the epidural space near the ligamentum flavum?

Posterior internal vertebral venous plexus

73

What venous vessels are IDed in the intervertebral Foramen?

Intervertebral veins

74

ID the meninges of the spinal cord.

Dura mater - tough mother; arachnoid mater - spider mother; pia mater - tender or delicate mother

75

Name and locate each space formed between the osseous vertebral Foramen and the spinal cord.

Epidural space - between the vertebral Foramen and the dura mater
Subdural space - between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater
Subarachnoid space - between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater

76

What is the name given to the fluid within the epidural space?

Interstitial fluid

77

What are the vascular contents of the epidural space?

Anterior and posterior spinal canal arteries and plexus', anterior and oysters or internal vertebral venous plexus', basivertebral vein

78

What are the neural contents f the epidural space?

Recurrent maningeal/sinu-vertebral/sinus vertebral nerve

79

What ligaments are associate with the epidural space?

Hofmann ligament, ligamentum flavum, posterior longitudinal ligament

80

Which of the blood vessels of the epidural space will be found near the vertebral body?

Anterior spinal canal artery and plexus, anterior internal vertebral venous plexus, basivertebral vein

81

Which of the nerve of the epidural space will e found near the vertebral body?

Recurrent meningeal/sing-vertebral, sinus enteral nerve

82

Which of the ligaments of the epidural space will be found near the vertebral body?

Posterior longitudinal ligament and Hofmann ligament

83

Which of the blood vessels of the epidural space will be found near the lamina?

Poster spinal canal artery and plexus, posterior internal vertebral venous plexus

84

Which of the nerves off the epidural space will be found near the lamina?

Recurrent meningeal/sinu-vertebral/sinus vertebral nerve

85

Which off the ligaments of the epidural space will be found near the lamina?

Ligamentum flavum and Hofmann ligament

86

Which meningeal space is now thought to be a potential space, not an actual space?

Subdural space - between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater

87

Which of the contents of the epidural space are more likely located near or around the posterior longitudinal ligament?

Anterior spinal canal artery and plexus, anterior internal vertebral venous plaexous, basivertebral vein, recurrent meningeal nerve, Hofmann ligament

88

Which of the contents of the epidural space will be found near the lamina?

Posterior spinal canal artery and plexus, posterior internal vertebral venous plexus, ligamentum flavum, recurrent meningeal nerve, Hofmann ligaments

89

What is the name given to the fluid presen within the subdural space?

Serous fluid

90

What is the name given to the fluid within the subarachnoid space?

Cerebrospinal fluid?

91

What ligaments may be present in the subarachnoid space?

Dentate ligament

92

What contents of the subarachnoid space are change below the level C6?

The arterial vasa corona consists of 1 anterior spinal artery, 2 posterior spinal arteries and 3 communicating arteries

93

What is the name given to the lateral extension of pia mater along the spinal cord?

Dentate ligament

94

What is the unique feature of veins along the spinal canal?

They lack the bicuspid valve of typical veins

95

What is the semicircular region of bone attached to the back of the vertebral body called?

The vertebral arch

96

What is the name given to the intermediate part of the vertebral arch where the transverse process and articular processes attach?

The lamina-pedicle junction

97

Hat are the segmental arteries?

The arteries whose branches supply the vertebra or segment

98

What is the name given to the artery that lies in front of the spinal cord along its length?

Anterior spinal artery

99

Is the posterior spinal artery a single, continuous artery along the spinal cord?

No

100

What arterial vasa corona branches supply gray mater and most of the spinal cord?

Ventral/central/sulcal perforating

101

What intramedullary branches supply about 1/3 of the spinal cord?

Pial perforating arteries

102

What is the source for pial perforating arteries?

Pial plexus

103

What arteries form the pial plexus?

The posterior spinal arteries and the communicating arteries

104

Which vessels will drain the dorsal/posterior nerve roots?

Posterior radicular veins