Flashcards in Bacterial infections of skin and soft tissue III Deck (35):
What virulence factors are responsible for causing disease in clostridium infection?
Hemolysin, neurotoxin, enterotoxin
What is the most important clostridium toxin?
What are the most susceptible types of wounds for clostridium perfringens infection?
Traumatic wounds and surgical wounds
What are crepitations?
Gas production from clostridium perfringens infection
What is the cause of gas gangrene?
How is clostridium perfringens detected microscopically?
Gram positive rods WITHOUT leukocytes
What are the two tetanus toxins?
1. Tetanolysin - oxygen labile 2. Tetanospasmin - heat labile neurotoxin
What is the gram stain for mycobacterium?
Gram positive (weakly)
What is the shape of mycobacterium?
What is the mycobacterium analog of LPS?
What do macrophages release in response to mycobacterium tuberculosis infection?
IL-12 and TNFa
What is the T cell reaction in response to mycobacterium tuberculosis infection?
Differentiation into Th1 and production of IFNy
What is the treatment for TB?
First line course of isoniazid + rifampin + ethambutol + pyrazinamide for 6-9 months
What cells does mycobacterium leprae target?
Macrophages and Schwann cells
What is the unique antigen associated with mycobacterium leprae?
Phenolic glycolipid (PGL-1)
Are antibodies useful against leprosy?
No - intracellular pathogen
Which immune response is worse in a mycobacterium leprae infection?
Will people with a Th2 immune response to mycobacterium leprae respond to lepromin?
Will people with a Th1 immune response to mycobacterium leprae respond to lepromin?
What is the gram stain for nocardia?
What is the shape of nocardia?
What is the acid fast stain for nocardia?
Weakly acid fast
What is the cause of mycetomas?
What are the cutaneous infections caused by nocardia?
Lymphocutaneous disease, cellulitis, subcutaneous abscesses
What is the most important indicator of nocardia infection during a history?
Exposure to environment (gardening, farming)
What is the treatment for nocardia?
What is the most common presentation of actinomyces infection?
What are common etiologies of cervicofacial actinomyces?
Poor dental hygiene and/or dental surgery
How are nocardia and actinomyces differentiated?
Actinomyces do not stain with modified acid fast stain
What is the treatment for actinomyces?
What are the four key elements of acne vulgaris pathogenesis?
1. Follicular epidermal hyperproliferation 2. Excess sebum production 3. Inflammation 4. Presence and activity of proprionibacterium acnes
What is the gram stain for proprionibacterium acnes?
What is the shape of proprionibacterium acnes?
What are the leading causes of gingivitis and periodontitis?
Poryphyromonas gingivalis and treponema denticola