Bacterial infections of skin and soft tissue III Flashcards Preview

Year 1 Microbiology > Bacterial infections of skin and soft tissue III > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bacterial infections of skin and soft tissue III Deck (35):
1

What virulence factors are responsible for causing disease in clostridium infection?

Hemolysin, neurotoxin, enterotoxin

2

What is the most important clostridium toxin?

Alpha toxin

3

What are the most susceptible types of wounds for clostridium perfringens infection?

Traumatic wounds and surgical wounds

4

What are crepitations?

Gas production from clostridium perfringens infection

5

What is the cause of gas gangrene?

Clostridium perfringens

6

How is clostridium perfringens detected microscopically?

Gram positive rods WITHOUT leukocytes

7

What are the two tetanus toxins?

1. Tetanolysin - oxygen labile 2. Tetanospasmin - heat labile neurotoxin

8

What is the gram stain for mycobacterium?

Gram positive (weakly)

9

What is the shape of mycobacterium?

Rod

10

What is the mycobacterium analog of LPS?

Lipoarabinomannan

11

What do macrophages release in response to mycobacterium tuberculosis infection?

IL-12 and TNFa

12

What is the T cell reaction in response to mycobacterium tuberculosis infection?

Differentiation into Th1 and production of IFNy

13

What is the treatment for TB?

First line course of isoniazid + rifampin + ethambutol + pyrazinamide for 6-9 months

14

What cells does mycobacterium leprae target?

Macrophages and Schwann cells

15

What is the unique antigen associated with mycobacterium leprae?

Phenolic glycolipid (PGL-1)

16

Are antibodies useful against leprosy?

No - intracellular pathogen

17

Which immune response is worse in a mycobacterium leprae infection?

Th2

18

Will people with a Th2 immune response to mycobacterium leprae respond to lepromin?

No

19

Will people with a Th1 immune response to mycobacterium leprae respond to lepromin?

Yes

20

What is the gram stain for nocardia?

Gram positive

21

What is the shape of nocardia?

Rod

22

What is the acid fast stain for nocardia?

Weakly acid fast

23

What is the cause of mycetomas?

Nocardia

24

What are the cutaneous infections caused by nocardia?

Lymphocutaneous disease, cellulitis, subcutaneous abscesses

25

What is the most important indicator of nocardia infection during a history?

Exposure to environment (gardening, farming)

26

What is the treatment for nocardia?

TMP-SMX

27

What is the most common presentation of actinomyces infection?

Cervicofacial actinomyces

28

What are common etiologies of cervicofacial actinomyces?

Poor dental hygiene and/or dental surgery

29

How are nocardia and actinomyces differentiated?

Actinomyces do not stain with modified acid fast stain

30

What is the treatment for actinomyces?

Penicillin

31

What are the four key elements of acne vulgaris pathogenesis?

1. Follicular epidermal hyperproliferation 2. Excess sebum production 3. Inflammation 4. Presence and activity of proprionibacterium acnes

32

What is the gram stain for proprionibacterium acnes?

Gram positive

33

What is the shape of proprionibacterium acnes?

Rod

34

What are the leading causes of gingivitis and periodontitis?

Poryphyromonas gingivalis and treponema denticola

35

What is the main cause of dental caries?

Strep mutans - acids produced by strep mutans react with species in the plaque biofilm