Bacterial zoonoses II Flashcards Preview

Year 1 Microbiology > Bacterial zoonoses II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bacterial zoonoses II Deck (48):
1

What is the shape for borrelia?

Long spirochete

2

What causes Lyme disease in the US?

Borrelia burgdorferi

3

What is the main vector for Lyme disease?

Ixodes spp. (hard tick)

4

What is the characteristic presentation of a borrelia burgdorferi bite / infection?

Bull's eye rash

5

What characterizes late infection of borrelia burgdorferi?

Arthritis - one or more joints, skin discoloration, neurologic complaints

6

What is the treatment for early stage Lyme disease? Late stage?

1. Early stage - cefuroxime + doxycycline + amoxicillin 2. Late stage - ceftriaxone + doxycycline + amoxicillin

7

What are the two types of relapsing fever?

Epidemic and endemic

8

What is the cause of epidemic relapsing fever?

Borrelia recurrentis (louse-borne)

9

What is the cause of endemic relapsing fever?

Borrelia hermsii (tick-borne)

10

How does borrelia evade the immune system during relapsing fever infection?

Antigenic variation

11

Is epidemic relapsing fever a zoonotic disease?

No - human to human

12

What is the treatment for relapsing fever?

Tetracycline or erythromycin

13

What is the gram stain for rickettsia?

Gram negative (weakly)

14

What is the pathogenesis of rickettsia?

1. Organisms infect vascular epithelium of small blood vessels 2. Facilitate own entry into host cell 3. Escape vacuoles and enter cytoplasm 4. Limited ability to survive outside host cell

15

How does rickettsia manifest in the skin?

Inflammation, thrombosis, erythrocyte leakage - rash or petechia

16

How does rickettsia manifest in systemic disease?

Vascular lesions throughout body, dependent on virulence and tissue tropism of strain / species involved

17

What are the vectors for rocky mountain spotted fever?

Dog tick, rocky mountain wood tick

18

When are most cases of rocky mountain spotted fever reported?

Between April and September

19

How does rocky mountain spotted fever present?

1. Fever 2. Rash 2-5 days after fever - small flat pink non-itchy spots on wrists, forearms, and ankles

20

What type of spread is associated with rocky mountain spotted fever?

Centripetal

21

What is the presentation of untreated rocky mountain spotted fever?

Disseminated intravascular coagulation, thrombocytopenia, pulmonary edema, renal failure, GI hemorrhage, shock

22

What is the treatment for rocky mountain spotted fever?

Tetracycline (doxycycline)

23

What is the gram stain for ehrlichia and anaplasma?

Gram negative (weakly)

24

Ehrlichia and anaplasma primarily parasitize what cell types?

Monocytes and granulocytes

25

What are morulae?

Colonies of ehrlichia / anaplasma inside vacuoles

26

What causes human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME)?

Ehrlichia chaffeensis

27

What causes human gradulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE)?

Anaplasma phagocytophilium

28

What protects ehrlichia and anaplasma from humoral immune response?

Intracellular location

29

What is the pathogenesis of ehrlichia / anaplasma infection?

Derailment of phagolysozome maturation

30

What leads to resolution of ehrlichia / anaplasma infection?

INFy-mediated activation of macrophages

31

What is the principle vector for human monocytic ehrlichiosis?

Lone Star Tick

32

What is the principle vector for human granulocytic ehrlichiosis?

Ixodes tick

33

Which is the treatment for ehrlichiosis?

Tetracycline (doxycycline)

34

What is the gram stain for coxiella burnetii?

Gram negative

35

Coxiella burnetii causes what disease?

Q fever

36

Q fever is caused by what organism?

Coxiella burnetii

37

What is the pathogenesis of coxiella burnetii?

Reside and replicate within fully acidified phagolysosomes of macrophages and monocytes (do not derail their formation)

38

Which variant of coxiella burnetii can survive harsh condition, similar to a spore?

Small cell variant

39

What is the treatment for Q fever?

Tetracycline (doxycycline)

40

What is the gram stain for bartonella?

Gram negative

41

What is the shape of bartonella?

Rod

42

What causes trench fever?

Bartonella quintana

43

What causes cat scratch fever?

Bartonella henselae

44

How is trench fever transmitted?

Body louse - bacteria excreted via feces then rubbed into skin / wound by scratching the bite

45

What is the treatment for trench fever?

Aminoglycoside (gentamicin) or macrolide (erythromycin)

46

How is cat scratch fever transmitted?

Inoculation of flea feces into a cat scratch or bite

47

What type of fever is associated with brucellosis?

Occurs daily, recurs in the evening, normal by morning, ends in a drenching sweat

48

What type of fever is associated with borrelia?

Occurs every 7-10 days, lasts 7-10 days