Urinary tract infections Flashcards Preview

Year 1 Microbiology > Urinary tract infections > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urinary tract infections Deck (51):
1

What are the symptoms of urethritis and cystitis?

Dysuria, frequency, urgency

2

What are symptoms of pyelonephritis?

Pain in the flanks, fever

3

How are UTIs diagnosed?

Symptoms and dipstick test

4

What kind of sample is required for UTI diagnosis?

Clean voided midstream urine

5

What does a dipstick test look for?

Leukocyte esterase and nitrite

6

What does a positive leukocyte esterase result indicate?

Pyuria (WBC in urine)

7

What is the gram stain for enterobacteriaceae?

Gram negative

8

What is the shape of enterobacteriaceae?

Rod

9

What is the oxidase test for enterobacteriaceae?

Oxidase negative

10

What is the catalase test for enterobacteriaceae?

Catalase positive

11

Serology for enterobacteriaceae is based on what antigens?

O-polysaccharide of LPS, K and H antigens

12

What are the virulence factors associated with enterobacteriaceae?

Endotoxin, capsule, T3SS, sequestration of growth factors, antigenic phase variation

13

What is responsible for the degree of virulence of different strains of E. coli?

Acquisition of plasmids, prophages, and pathogenicity islands

14

What is responsible for E.coli adherence to host mucosal surfaces?

Fimbriae or pili

15

What can differentiate E. coli from salmonella or shigella?

Most E. coli spp. ferment lactose

16

What is the most common gram negative rod isolated from patients with sepsis?

E. coli

17

What is the most common cause of UTIs?

E. coli

18

What is the reservoir in E. coli UTI?

Patient's intestinal flora

19

What are the virulence factors of E. coli UTI?

Adhesins, hemolysin, endotoxin

20

What do most E. coli strains possess to aid in attachment to epithelial surfaces?

Type I pili

21

What is the type I pili?

Present on most E. coli strains - binds to mannose residues commonly present on epithelial surfaces

22

What is the P pili?

Expressed by some subpopulations of E. coli - binds sugar residues specifically on uroepithelial cells

23

E. coli strains that cause pyelohnephritis usually possess which type of pili?

P pili

24

What is the shape of staphylococcus?

Clusters

25

What is the shape of streptococcus?

Pairs or chains

26

What is the gram stain for staphylococcus?

Gram positive

27

What is the second leading cause of UTIs?

S. saprophyticus

28

How can S. saprophyticus be differentiated from other CoNS?

Novobiocin resistant

29

What are the common hospital acquired UTI pathogens?

Proteus, pseudomonas, enterococcus

30

What is the gram stain for proteus?

Gram negative

31

What is the prevalence of proteus for UTI isolates in chronically catheterized patients?

20-45%

32

How does proteus cause kidney stones?

1. Produces urease 2. Urease hydrolyzes urea to ammonia - alkalizes urine 3. Alkalinization leads to precipitation of organic and inorganic compounds - kidney stones

33

Does proteus produce biofilms?

Yes

34

What is the treatment for proteus?

TMP-SMX

35

What is the gram stain for pseudomonas?

Gram negative

36

What is the shape of pseudomonas?

Motile rod

37

What is the oxidase test for pseudomonas?

Oxidase positive

38

How can pseudomonas be differentiated from enterobactericeae?

Oxidase test

39

Which bacteria produce a blue-green pigment?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

40

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is typically seen in what patient profile?

1. Long term indwelling catheters 2. Obstruction of GU system or urinary tract instrumentation / surgery 3. Multiple courses of abx

41

Enterococcus are what group of streptococci?

Group D streptococci

42

What is the gram stain for enterococcus?

Gram positive

43

What is the catalase test for enterococcus?

Catalase negative

44

How can enterococcus be differentiated from S. pneumoniae?

1. Tolerates high salt and bile 2. Not sensitive to optochin

45

What are the risk factors for enterococcus?

1. Prolonged hospitalization 2. BSA

46

What are the clinical diseases associated with enterococcus?

UTI, peritonitis, endocarditis

47

What is the diagnosis for asymptomatic bacteriuria?

Significant bacteriuria on two successive urine cultures in women or from a single culture in men from catheterized urine specimen

48

When is treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria indicated?

1. Pregnant women 2. Prior to urologic surgery 3. After renal transplantation

49

What is the treatment for uncomplicated cystitis?

Trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole

50

What is the treatment for pyelonephritis?

Aggressive - fluoroquinolones for gram negatives, amoxicillin for gram positives

51

What is the treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria?

Cephalexin, nitrofurantoin