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Year 1 Microbiology > Mycology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mycology Deck (28):
1

What is the main sterol in fungal cell walls?

Ergosterol

2

What comprises the fungal cell wall?

1. Chitin2. a-glucan3. B-glucan4. Mannan5. Cellulose6. Chitosan

3

What is the structure of the fungal cell wall?

1. Typical phospholipid bilayer2. Unique sterol composition - ergosterol

4

What are the properties of yeast?

1. Unicellular - spherical or ellipsoid shape2. Reproduce via budding3. Can form pseudohyphae or germ tubes

5

What structure is diagnostic for Candida albicans?

Germ tube

6

What are properties of molds?

1. Hyphae (mycelium - vegetative or aerial)2. Septa3. Asexual and sexual reproduction

7

What is a mycelium?

A cluster of hyphae

8

What type of mold reproduction involves conidia?

Asexual

9

What type of mold reproduction involves spoers?

Sexual

10

What are the types of fungal infections?

1. Superficial 2. Cutaneous3. Subcutaneous4. Systemic5. Opportunistic

11

What are properties of superficial mycoses?

Outermost layer of skin and hair

12

What are properties of cutaneous mycoses?

Infection which extends deep into the epidermis as well as invasive hair and nail infections

13

What are properties of subcutaneous mycoses?

Infections involving the dermis, subcutaneous tissues, muscle, fascia

14

What are properties of systemic mycoses?

Infections that originate primarily in the lung but may spread to any organ

15

What are properties of opportunistic mycoses?

Infection associated primarily with immunosuppressed individuals

16

What factors contribute to severity of fungal disease?

1. Size of inoculum2. Magnitude of tissue destruction3. Ability of fungi to multiply in tissues4. Immunologic status of host

17

What type of immunity is essential for controlling and eliminating fungal infection?

Cell mediated immunity

18

What are the main methods to target the cell membrane pharmacologically?

1. Direct damage via polyenes2. Inhibit ergosterol synthesis

19

What are the properties of antifungal drugs?

1. Inhibit ergosterol synthesis2. Polyenes bind to membrane sterols 3. Azoles, allylamines, thiocarbamates, and morpholines inhibit ergosterol synthesis

20

What type of compound is Amphotericin B?

1. Polyene2. Binds to ergosterol in the membrane and causes a pore to form, leading to osmotic disruption

21

What are properties of echinocandins?

1. Inhibit B-glucan synthesis2. Highly selective 3. Used mainly against Candida and Aspergillus

22

How are fungi diagnosed?

1. Visually2. Colony morphology and hyphal spore structures

23

What does the KOH preparation diagnose?

1. To examine hair, nail, skin, fluids, exudates, biopsies2. To visualize hyphae, large yeast, spherules, sporangia

24

What do chlorazol black and calcofluor white stain?

Carbohydrate rich cell wall

25

The carbohydrate rich cell wall of fungi can be stained by what?

1. Chlorazol black2. Calcofluor white

26

Are fungi gram positive or gram negative?

All fungi are gram positive

27

What does a positive India ink test indicate?

Presence of Cryptococcus neoformans

28

Cryptococcuz neoformans will stain positive with which stain?

India ink stain