Bacterial infections of the CNS II Flashcards Preview

Year 1 Microbiology > Bacterial infections of the CNS II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bacterial infections of the CNS II Deck (28):
1

What is the gram staining for S. agalactiae?

Gram positive

2

What is the shape of S. agalactiae?

Long chains

3

What is the catalase test for S. agalactiae?

Negative

4

What is the hemolysis pattern for S. agalactiae?

Beta

5

What is the most common cause of sepsis and meningitis in neonates less than 2 months of age?

S. agalactiae

6

What are the virulence factors for S. agalactiae?

Polysaccharide capsule, absence of maternal antibodies

7

What is the risk of GBS transmission from from mother to child during birth?

2%

8

What is the treatment for GBS infection?

Penicillin

9

What is the prevention for GBS?

1. Universal screening of pregnant women 2. NO vaccine

10

What is the gram stain for HIB?

Gram negative

11

What does HIB require for growth?

Hemin (X) and NAD (V) factors

12

What do the non-encapsulated strains of HIB cause?

Pinkeye, otitis media, sinusitis

13

What do the encapsulated strains of HIB cause?

Meningitis, epiglottitis

14

Which meningitis-causing pathogen is associated with hearing loss?

HIB

15

What is the diagnosis for HIB?

Gram stain, latex agglutination

16

When is HIB vaccination initiated?

2 months of age

17

What is the gram stain of clostridium tetani?

Gram positive

18

Does clostridium tetani form spores?

Yes ("drumstick" appearance)

19

What type of toxin is the tetanus toxin?

A-B toxin

20

What is the pathogenesis of the tetanus toxin?

1. B binds to motor neurons 2. Toxin internalized and transported to spinal cord 3. Inactivates release of inhibitory neurotransmitters 4. SPASTIC PARALYSIS

21

What is the treatment for tetanus?

1. Passive - administer Ig 2. Active - vaccinate with tetanus toxoid

22

What is the goal for tetanus treatment?

Remove any unbound toxin (binding is irreversible)

23

When is tetanus vaccination initiated?

2 months of age (boosters every 10 years)

24

What is the gram stain for clostridium botulinum?

Gram positive

25

What is the pathogenesis of botulism toxin?

1. A-B toxin 2. B binds and A enters motor neurons 3. A blocks release of Ach 4. Blocks stimulation - FLACCID PARALYSIS

26

What is the gram stain for listeria monocytogenes?

Gram positive

27

What is the shape of listeria monocytogenes?

Motile rod (coccobacillus)

28

S. aureus meningitis typically follows what condition?

Bacteremia