Other genitourinary tract infections Flashcards Preview

Year 1 Microbiology > Other genitourinary tract infections > Flashcards

Flashcards in Other genitourinary tract infections Deck (44):
1

What is the primary vaginal bacteria genus during childbearing years?

Lactobacillus

2

What is the gram stain for lactobacillus?

Gram positive

3

What is the oxygen requirement for lactobacillus?

Microaerophilic or anaerobic rods

4

What is the shape of lactobacillus?

Rods

5

Why doesn't lactobacillus cause UTIs?

Cannot grow in presence of urine

6

How does lactobacillus create an intravaginal environment of pH 4-5?

Metabolizes glycogen to lactic acid

7

Which bacteria are found in women who develop pelvic infections following a hysterectomy?

1. Bacteroides fragilis 2. E. coli 3. Enterococcus spp.

8

Overgrowth of what type of bacteria is seen in bacterial vaginosis?

Anaerobic

9

Reduction in what bacteria is seen in bacterial vaginosis?

Lactobacillus

10

What are the symptoms of BV?

1. Discharge, odor, pain, itching, burning 2. Can by asymptomatic

11

What are the Amsel criteria for BV diagnosis?

1. Discharge - white or gray 2. Clue cells in microscopy 3. Positive whiff test - fishy amines upon KOH prep4. pH > 4.5

12

What are complications of BV?

1. HIV infection and transmission risk increase 2. Post-op infection 3. Preterm delivery, miscarriage, post-partum infection4. Susceptibility to other STIs

13

What is the treatment for BV?

1. Oral metronidazole (anaerobes, parasites) 2. Clindamycin (gram+ cocci, anaerobes)

14

What is the discharge for vulvovaginal candidiasis?

Thick, odorless, white (cottage cheese)

15

What is the identification of candida species in VVC?

Yeast form producing buds, pseudohyphae, and phyphae (gram stain or KOH)

16

VVC is generally seen in what populations?

1. Local or generalized immunosuppression, or favorable overgrowth conditions 2. Oral contraceptives, pregnancy, diabetes, systemic corticosteroids, HIV infection, antibiotic use

17

What is the diagnosis for VVC?

1. Microscopy with KOH - visualization of hyphae and budding yeast 2. Cultures with Nickerson medium if candida is suspected but not demonstrated

18

What is the treatment for VVC?

1. UNCOMPLICATED: 1-3 day regimen of topical azole 2. COMPLICATED: 7-14 day topical regimen or 2 doses of oral fluconazole 3 days apart

19

What is the discharge for trichomoniasis?

1. Symptomatic - yellow-green, frothy, foul smelling 2. Asymptomatic / mild - scant, watery discharge

20

What are the symptoms of trichomoniasis?

Mild to severe vaginitis, itching, burning, dysuria

21

Are men typically symptomatic or asymptomatic for trichomoniasis?

Asymptomatic

22

What is the shape / appearance of trichomonas vaginalis?

Small pear-shaped protozoa with 4 anterior flagella and an undulating membrane for motility

23

What is the oxygen requirement for trichomonas vaginalis?

Anaerobic

24

In what form(s) does trichomonas vaginalis exist?

Only trophozoite

25

What is the pathogenesis for trichomonas vaginalis?

1. Contact with epithelium of GU tract then destruction of epithelial cells 2. Neutrophil influx and petecchial hemorrhages

26

What is the appearance of the cervix during a trichomonas vaginalis infection?

"Strawberry cervix"

27

Which infection presents with a "strawberry cervix"?

Trichomonas vaginalis

28

Does trichomonas vaginalis infection confer immunity?

No

29

What is the diagnosis for trichomonas vaginalis?

1. Detection of swimming T. vaginalis in exudate 2. Pap smear for asymptomatic individuals

30

What is the treatment for trichomonas vaginalis?

Metronidazole for BOTH partners

31

What is the cause of toxic shock syndrome?

S. aureus

32

What is the gram staining for S. aureus?

Gram positive

33

What is the catalase rating for S. aureus?

Positive

34

What is the coagulase rating for S. aureus?

Positive

35

What is the shape of S. aureus?

Cocci in clusters

36

What is responsible for the systemic effects of toxic shock syndrome?

TSST-1

37

What is the virulence of TSST-1 in toxic shock syndrome?

1. Heat- and proteolysis-resistant exotoxin 2. Superantigen

38

What is responsible for the hypotension and shock associated with toxic shock syndrome?

TNFa and TNFb release

39

What is released by macrophages in response to TSST-1?

IL-1B and TNFa

40

What is released by T cells in response to TSST-1?

IL-2, IFNy, TNFb

41

What is responsible for the fever associated with toxic shock syndrome?

IL-1B

42

What are the main /common symptoms associated with toxic shock sydrome?

Diarrhea, general ill-feeling, high fever / occasional chills, nausea, vomiting

43

What are the major criteria for toxic shock syndrome diagnosis?

Hypotension, orthostatic syncope, systolic BP 38.8C, late skin desquamation on hands, and feet, very high creatine phosphokinase levels

44

What is the treatment for toxic shock syndrome?

1. B-lactamase-resistant penicillin or vancomycin 2. Supportive - fluids