Flashcards in Barbiturates and Anesthetics Deck (43):
Barbiturates - suffix? (exception)
barbitol (except thiopental)
MoA of barbiturates?
increase duration of Cl- channel opening (barbiDURATes)
Barbiturates contraindicated for?
Barbiturate used for anesthesia induction
Barbiturate toxicities: Most worried about?
Barbiturate - effect on P450?
Barbiturate: OD treatment?
Benzos - suffix (exception)
-lam, -pam, (chlordiazepoxide)
Benzos - MoA
increases frequency of Cl channel (GABAa)opening
Benzos - Shorter acting (higher addiction potential)?
triazolam, oxaepam, midazolam
Pt comes in with night terrors and sleepwalking. Tx?
Which has larger effect on respiration - barbs or benzos?
Benzo: OD treatment? MoA?
Flumazenil, Competitive antag for GABA receptor
MoA of nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics?
Zs (Zolpidem, zalephlon, eszopiclone)
Act via the BZ1 subtype of the GABA receptor
Indication of Z-drugs?
Side effects of Z-drugs?
Ataxia, headaches, confusion
Advantage of Z-drugs over benzos?
Modest dat-after psychomotor depression.
Few amnestic effects.
Anesthetics: What determines induction/recovery times? potency?
decreased blood solubilty = rapid induction
increased lipid solubility = increased potency
Potency of anesthetics determined by?
1/MAC (min alveolar concentration at which 50% of the population is anesthetized)
Anesthetic with low blood and lipid solubility?
N2O nitrous oxide (low potency and high induction)
Anesthetic with high blood and lipid solubility?
Halothane (high potency and slow induction)
Inhaled anesthetics - suffix? (exception)
-ane (Nitrous Oxide - N2O)
Anesthetic Toxicity: hepatoxicity
Anesthetic Toxicity: nephrotoxicity
Anesthetic Toxicity: proconvlusant
Anesthetic Toxicity: malignany hyperthermia
All but N2O
Anesthetic Toxicity: trapped gas in body
Intravenous anesthetic classes (5)
Barbs, Benzos, Ketamine, Opioids, Propofol
Barb with high potency and rapid entry into brain. Used to induce anesthesia. How is effect terminated?
Thiopental. Rapid redistribution into tissue
Benzo used for endoscopy. Treat OD with?
IV anesthetics that blocks NMDA receptors. Stimulation of? Side effects?
Ketamine. Stimulate cardiovascular system. Hallucinations
Opioid used during general anesthesia (2)
Morphine and Fentanyl
Used for sedation in ICU. Rapid anesthesia induction. MoA?
Propofol. Potentiates GABAa.
Local Anesthetics: esters?
procaine, cocaine, tetracaine
Local Anesthetics: amides?
LIdocaIne, MepIvacaIne, bupIvacaIne
Local Anesthetics: MoA?
The -caines. Block Na channels by binding to inner portion of ACTIVE channels
Local Anesthetics: enhance location action by?
The -caines. giving with vasoconstrictors (NE)
Local Anesthetics: why need more in infected tissue?
The -caines. Acidic tissue charges molecules, can't go through membrane
Local Anesthetics: Nerves most affected? Order of sensation loss with administration?
The -caines. Small then myelinated. pain, temperature, touch, pressure
Local Anesthetics: toxicity?
The -caines. CNS excitation
Local Anesthetics: cardiovascular toxicity with?
Local Anesthetics: arrhythmias?