Basal Ganglia Flashcards Preview

Undeleted > Basal Ganglia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Basal Ganglia Deck (23):
0

5 areas of gray matter in basal ganglia

1. Caudate nucleus
2. Putamen
3. Globus pallidus
4. Nucleus accumbens
5. Olfactory tubercle

1

Dorsal striatum made up of:

Caudate nucleus + putamen

2

Lentiform nucleus made up of:

Putamen + globus pallidus

3

Ventral striatum made up of:

Nucleus accumbens + olfactory tubercle

4

Substantia niagra located in:

mesencephalon

5

Subthalamic nucleus located:

junction b/w mesencephalon and diencephalon

6

The caudate and putamen are separated by

internal capsule

7

95% of neurons in basal ganglia are ____ that use ____ as their neurotransmitter. They (inhibit/excite) their target neurons. They have (high/low) spontaneous activity.

medium spiny neurons
GABA
Inhibit
Low (usually "quiet")

8

Two types of MSNs

1. Contain dynorphin and substance P, mostly D1 dopamine receptors (excitatory)
2. Contain enkephalin, mostly D2 dopamine receptors (inhibitory)

9

D1 dopamine receptors are (inhibitory/excitatory)

Excitatory

10

D2 dopamine receptors are (inhibitory/excitatory)

Inhibitory

11

Two segments of globus pallidus

Internal segment (GPi)
External segment (GPe)

12

Globus pallidus contain mostly ____ that contain ____ and are (inhibitory/excitatory) to their targets
They have a (high/low) rate of spontaneous activity.

Large neurons
GABA
Inhibitory
High (tonically active --> constitutively inhibit target neurons)

13

Subthalamic nucleus contain neurons that use ___ as neurotransmitter.
STN is (inhibitory/excitatory) to ___

glutamate
Excitatory
GPi --> GPi is really going to inhibit target when excited by STN

14

2 components of substantia nigra

pars compacta (SNc)
pars reticulata (SNr)

15

Pars compacta (SNc) contain ____

dopamine synthesizing neurons

16

Pars reticulata (SNr) release ___
Is continuous and functionally analogous to ____
Constantly active?

GABA
GPi
yes

17

Ventral anterior (VA) nucleus
Connects:
Responsible for:

Thalamus with Premotor and supplement motor areas (PMA, SMA)

Planning and initiation of movement

18

Mediodorsal (MD) nucleus
Connects:
Responsible for:

Thalamus to prefrontal cortex

Complex cognitive control over movement

19

Parkinson's disease is a ____ disorder
Characterized by:
Results in:

Hypokinetic = absence/slowness of movement
Progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in SNc

Loss of excitation of direct pathway MSN
Loss of inhibition of indirect pathway MSN
--> increased inhibition of thalamus

20

Huntington's chorea is a ____ disorder
Characterized by:
Results in:

Hyperkinetic = sudden, involuntary, purposeless jerking movements of head, limbs and trunk

Degeneration of MSNs in striatum (caudate)

Loss of inhibition in thalamus via indirect pathway

21

Blood supply to basal ganglia

Lenticulo-striate branches of MCA

22

Blood supply to globus pallidus

Anterior choroidal artery