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Flashcards in Frontal Cortex/Memory/Language Deck (29):
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Prefrontal cortex functions

Emotion
Planning
Decision making
Judgement
Memory...etc.

1

Right dorsolateral PFC stroke will cause:

Not depressed
Unconcerned
Diminished motivation
Poor organization and planning

2

Damage to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex will cause:

Impairments of intellectual function: executive functions
Impairments of working memory

3

Damage to ventromedial prefrontal sector will cause:

Impairments of social conduct, judgement, and decision making

4

Superior medial prefrontal sector is important for:

initiation of movement and emotional expression

5

Lesions in medial superior prefrontal region will cause:

Akinetic mutism: no effort to communicate, content to lie motionless or silent

6

Medial temporal lobe amnesia
Impaired:
Intact:

Long term episodic memory. Anterograde completely impaired (60-90 sec window). Graded retrograde impairment

Sensory, motor, perception, attention, language, intellect, short term memory, IMPLICIT memory

7

Left anterior thalamic infarct cause:

Anterograde verbal memory impairment

8

Basal forebrain amnesia

Temporal tagging deficit: can't remember WHEN things happened
Confabulation
Executive dysfunction

9

Progressive semantic dementia caused by:

widespread damage in posterior cortical regions: temporal, parietal and occipital lobes

10

Frontal Dysexecutive Amnesia

Memory capacity is retained but memory system not well utilized. "Forgets to remember" in the context of executive dysfunction.

11

An acquired disturbance of the comprehension and formulation of verbal messages

Aphasia

12

Speech not articulated clearly due to central or peripheral motor defect. Language is intact.

Dysarthria

13

No articulation due to central motor defect. Sounds like a whisper.

Aphemia

14

Verbal or semantic paraphasia

substitution of entire words

15

Phonemic paraphasia

substitution, addition or omission of a phoneme within a word ("table --> taber)

16

Neologism

production of novel word

17

Perseveration

Inappropriate repetition
Common in anterior prefrontal lesion

18

Echololia

Repetition of last word of a sentence
Common in anterior prefrontal lesions

19

Type of aphasia?
Non-fluent speech
Initiation of speech is difficult
Paraphasic
Agrammatic
Telegraphic: little words left out
Repetition, naming, writing defective
Comprehension relatively preserved

Broca's Aphasia

20

Type of aphasia?
Speech is fluent, well articulated, easily initiated
Semantic, phonemic, neologistic errors
Few specific nouns are produced
Impaired naming and repetition
Comprehension impaired
Alexia and agraphia

Wernicke's Aphasia

21

Type of aphasia?
Cannot speak but will attempt to or communicate by other means
Cannot understand spoken or written language

Global Aphasia

22

Type of aphasia?
Involves auditory cortex or insula
Severe impairment of verbatim repetition
Cannot write or dictation
Spontaneous speech is near normal, except for phonemic errors
Comprehension intact

Conduction Aphasia

23

Type of aphasia?
Mild Wernicke's aphasia
Verbatim repetition spared

Transcortical Sensory Aphasia

24

Type of aphasia?
Lesion of anterior or superior to Broca's area
Like mild Broca's aphasia
Verbatim repetition spared

Transcortical Motor Aphasia

25

Type of aphasia?
Can't name specific things
Damage to left inferotemporal regions

Anomic aphasia

26

Type of aphasia?
Lesions to left basal ganglia
Variable language impairments
Dysarthria

Subcortical Aphasia

27

Type of aphasia?
Personality changes, poor judgement, sparse and perseverative speech
Passivity and dependence
Echolalic speech

Progressive aphasia with frontaltemporal dementia

28

Common cause of aphasia

Stroke, commonly in left middle cerebral artery